Returning FFTs

December 20, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism Strategy: Montenegro

The Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Strategy has been developed as part of the Government of Montenegro’s effort to effectively address the problems of radicalization and violent extremism. It represents an integral part of the Government of Montenegro’s multifaceted contribution to the global fight against terrorism in all forms and manifestations. It builds on and complements the national Strategy for the Prevention and Supression of Terrorism, Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing. It represents a response to the threat of radicalization to violence, violent extremism and in particular the problem of foreign terrorist fighters.
December 17, 2021

Strategy of Bosnia and Herzegozina for Preventing and Combating Terrorism

is important to emphasise that the Strategy is adopted at the time of intensifying security challenges on a global scale, including, among other, foreign terrorist fighters, violent extremism and crime and hate speech, abuse of the Internet for terrorist purpose.
December 17, 2021

Rehabilitation Manual

This manual offers guidance to first line practitioners regarding the rehabilitation of radicalised and terrorist offenders inside as well as outside of prison.
December 17, 2021

The EU and other Stakeholders’ Prevention Strategies Towards VE in Albania

This policy paper focuses on the aptness of the EU and other stakeholders’ prevention strategies towards violent extremism in Albania.
December 17, 2021

The Status of Violent Extremism in Albania

This study is prepared in the framework of the project “Countering violent extremism in Albania – Persisting violent extremist forms and threats and the way forward to reinforced PVE”, supported financially by the Public Affairs Office of the US Embassy in Tirana.
December 17, 2021

Belgian and Dutch Converts Joining the Islamic State

This Research Note sketched a more complex picture of converts joining IS than the one presented by the media.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The purpose of this research was to identify common and distinct factors of resilience or vulnerability to violent extremism in Bosnian communities as well as the influence of key actors on those factors.
December 16, 2021

Extremism Research Forum: Macedonia

The report thematically presents the levels, forms, and threats of extremism in Macedonia by outlining the definitional variances between violent and non-violent extremism, the waves of Islamist extremism, the phenomenon of foreign fighters, and burgeoning nationalist extremism and its political undertones.
December 16, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism in Macedonia

In view of these realities, this policy brief proposes four recommendations, based on a broader, more holistic grassroots approach, which would assist the Republic of Macedonia in moving away from a “whole-of-government” strategy to a “whole-of-society” strategy which includes all stakeholders in the CVE.
December 16, 2021

Western Balkans Foreign Fighters and Homegrown Jihadis: Trends and Implications

Over 1,000 adult male foreign fighters, women, and minors from the Western Balkans spent time in Syria and Iraq and around 500 from the region are still there, including children born in theater. After seven years of fighting and at least 260 combat deaths, the last active jihadi unit from the Western Balkans in Syria and Iraq is a modest ethnic Albanian combat unit fighting with Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham in Idlib.
December 15, 2021

Local Communications for Returning FTFs

The paper is written for local (preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE)) coordinators and communications experts who are or will be dealing with returning FTFs and who wish to improve their communication strategy in this context.
December 15, 2021

Prison and Probation Interventions

This complex situation is reflected in prison and probation environments: practitioners have a responsibility to keep prisons – and the public domain – safe from terrorist activity, and must also deal with individuals at risk of radicalisation. Based on practitioners’ experiences collated in the P&P Practitioners' Working Paper ( 2 ), RAN P&P has developed an approach to prison and probation interventions.
December 15, 2021

Confederation of European Probation

This ex post paper reflects the discussions that took place during the meeting, and especially during the smaller group discussions organised to foster interaction between participants.
December 14, 2021

Islamophobia and Xenophobia in Slovenia

Our research, therefore, attempts to first identify Islamophobia and xenophobia through theoretical discourse as the fear of the "other" − that is, the fear towards Muslims (Islamophobia) or towards the foreigners (xenophobia)
December 14, 2021

Signs of Islamist Radicalisation and Extremism in a Country without a Single Terrorist Attack: The Case of Slovenia

The article identifies and studies instances of the transit of foreign Islamists, their finances and arms, provides examples of local foreign fighters and their return, identifies NGOs with radical agendas and attempts at recruitment, as well as threats made to local authorities, training under the cover of a social event, the deportation of extremists, and a foiled terrorist attack. Most of these indicators are linked to Jihadi and Islamist sources of power based in Bosnia.
December 14, 2021

Grassroots and Inhibitors on Radicalisation In North Macedonia

The paper aims to examine and provide deeper analysis of the current situation and most significant grassroot initiatives, which will be used as the basis for recommendations for improvement.
December 14, 2021

Foreign Fighters and Kosovo’s Diaspora: The case of Germany

This paper aims to provide some groundwork for research on the radicalisation of immigrants, by investigating why some Kosovar immigrants in Germany have joined violent extremism organisations like IS and Hayat Tahrir al Sham. In particular, the paper identifies some of the consequences of shifting social dynamics and identity formation as the ties between the diaspora community and the country of origin change over time.
December 14, 2021

New Threats of Violent Extremism in Kosovo

Yet, despite Government’s willingness to take ownership of the issue, with no reintegration program in place and a public largely unwilling to welcome the foreign fighters back, their return and the continued radicalization on the ground are poised to become Kosovo’s greatest national security threat to date.
December 14, 2021

Kosovo’ s Response to Returnee from the WarZones

This report seeks to address a gap in the existing literature pertaining to the approaches of Kosovo in supporting rehabilitation/deradicalization as well as reintegration of the returnees. By focusing on institutional and policy infrastructure, this report sheds light into the relevance of having a holistic (government + non-government +community), coherent and coordinated response to meet the needs of the returnees and effectively address the challenges for their social and economic reintegration, as well as ideological disengagement.
December 14, 2021

National Approches to Extremism: KOSOVO

First signs of radical and extremist views in Kosovo were identified shortly after the war in 1999. Security agencies that were monitoring such individuals saw their numbers rising in the following years. Through a slow and long-term process, inflammatory imams exploited the existing grievances of Kosovo citizens to proselytise Salafi/Wahhabi forms of radical Islam.
December 13, 2021

Reintegration of Returining Foreign Fighters

Consequently, it is an immediate need for Kosovo to develop its own model based on local capacities and expertise, whlist taking into consideration specific cases and contexts. Rather, across the field there exists a conundrum of approaches to re-radicalisation that do not stem derive from a consultative and coordinated process.
December 13, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation: A Systematic Review

The ICPC study involves three key components that assist in preventing radicalization: pluralist and harmonious social integration, greater emphasis on more refined, non-combative debate, and diversified discourse that is truly inclusive.
December 13, 2021

Violent Extremism in The Western Balkans: Literature Review

This review will be also of interest to the international donor community who would be interested in funding research projects on violent extremism in the Western Balkans. This review aims to also map out new avenues of research, and it does so by identifying gaps that remain in current literature, as well as some shortcomings in existing research.
December 13, 2021

The Latent Dangers Of Islamist Extremism In the Western Balkans

The risks of terrorist attacks by Islamist extremists in Kosovo and the countries of the EU still seem to be limited. However, if the political and social crisis escalates in Kosovo and the conflict in the Middle East is exacerbated, which could also lead to a polarization of the public’s attitudes toward Islam, the danger of terrorist attacks by Islamist extremist can’t be ruled out any more in both to Kosovo and the EU countries.
December 13, 2021

Structural Quality Standards for Work to Intervene and Counter Violent Extremism

With this handbook the Counter Extremism Network Coordination Unit (KPEBW) in the Ministry for Interior Affairs, Digitalisation and Integration of the state of Baden-Württemberg in cooperation with the German Institute on Radicalization and De-Radicalization Studies (GIRDS) would like to present a recommendation for 5 minimum structural standards both to an audience of counter-extremism actors and to other state coordination units or policymaker.
December 13, 2021

Assessment of Violent Extremism in Serbia

This assessment dealt with the root causes and drivers of VE in Serbia. It identified four different types of extremism: a) religiously-motivated extremism, including foreign fighters in the Middle East; b) ideologically-motivated (right-wing) extremism, which included Serbian nationals traveling to fight for the pro-Russian side in Ukraine; c) ethnically-motivated extremism; and d) hooliganism. All four types recognized in this research are rooted, directly or indirectly, in the context cited above. We will here summarize all underlying factors and drivers shared by these seemingly distinct types of extremism.
December 13, 2021

Citizens Perceptions on the New Threats of Violent Extremism In Kosovo

This report consists of data analysis on perceptions regarding threat of violent extremism and trust towards stakeholders involved in prevention of this phenomena. It is divided in three main sessions: the first focuses on general perceptions about violent extremism and other forms of extremism such as: ethnically motivated violence, political violence and religiously motivated violence; the second outlines the perceptions towards risks and threats of returned fighters, and community willingness to accept former fighters and women/minors; the last session focuses on the perceptions towards stakeholders involved in implementation of the CVE strategy.
December 13, 2021

Citizens Perception and Community Response on Returned Foreign Fighters

According to the Strategy, reintegration of potentially radicalized persons or at the stage of radicalization should be an inclusive and specific process. Further, the Malta Principles for Reintegrating Returning Foreign Terrorist Fighters highlights that effective assessments should be done, in order to design programs with individuals in mind whether they serve FTFs returnees, their families or vulnerable individuals.
December 13, 2021

Overview of research on far right extremism in the Western Balkans

Far-right extremism is widespread in the Western Balkans and exists in both mainstream political parties and extremist groups and individuals. Most of the literature focuses on Serbian nationalist groups, but far-right groups are also present in Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania and North Macedonia.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a multi-ethnic country with a population of 3.5 million split along religious lines. The main Abrahamic religions are present in BiH and are the foundation for ethnic divisions in the country: Bosniak Muslims, Catholic Croats, Orthodox Christian Serbs, and a minority presence of Jews. It became independent from Yugoslavia.
December 10, 2021

Vulnerability and Resilience to Violent Extremism in Kosovo

By focusing on the legacy of two distinct communities in the last six years since the appearance of violent extremism in Kosovo and the trajectory of their conduct over this period, this study seeks to shed light on the central role that formal and informal structures embedded in the communities have in preventing and countering radicalisation and violent extremism
December 10, 2021

Foreign Terrorist Figthers in the Republic of North Macedonia

The issue that is a point of interest of this paper is the current situation of returning the foreign terrorist fighters to their home country or third countries and the security consequences that may arise if they are not treated properly.
December 9, 2021

Countering Jihadi Radicals and Foreign Fighters in the United States and France

These findings have important implications for policymakers. Understanding what responses have been formulated, and also why, can facilitate international cooperation and provide useful insights on the characteristics, strengths, as well as limits of U.S. and French approaches to Jihadi radicals and foreign fighters.
December 7, 2021

Criminalization as Anxious and Ineffective Response to Foreign Fighters Phenomenon

I argue that this broader criminal law approach is difficult to justify from either preventive or reactive perspectives. It is, in fact, an anxious and ineffective response to foreign fighters phenomenon.
December 7, 2021

Understanding radicalisation in the Western Balkans

This research usefully informs policy development, providing practical recommendations, while also feeding into an overarching regional report, where broader linkages and key transnational issues that have been identified.
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

The report is a literature review of radicalisation and violent extremism in the Balkans, including terminology, drivers, narratives, the foreign fighter phenomenon and gender aspects.
December 7, 2021

Returning Foreign Fighters From Syria and Iraq

This article provides an overview of the Kosovan experience dealing with returnee ‘foreign fighters’ from Syria and Iraq.
December 7, 2021

Responding to Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

This report examines the drivers and mechanisms of Islamist and far-right radicalization and recruitment in the Western Balkans — specifically in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Serbia.
December 7, 2021

Reshaping the Islamist Terrorist Phenomenon in South-Eastern Europe

This paper aims to shed new light on the phenomenon of Islamist violent extremism across the Western Balkans.
December 7, 2021

Handbook for Prison and Probation Services Regarding Radicalisation and Violent Extremism

The Handbook is intended to be consistent with the Council of Europe values and standards, in particular, the European Prison Rules and the Council of Europe Probation Rules and it should be used in conjunction with these texts. National authorities should be aware that juveniles need special attention and different methods of intervention from adults. This takes into account their developing personality and specific needs.
December 7, 2021

A Comparative Analysis of the Data on Western Foreign Fighters

This report offers a concise, comprehensive, and critical overview of the empirical findings available on the background and possible motivations of the young Western men and women who became jihadist foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq.
December 7, 2021

Repatriation of Migrants to ISIS

This article is about the repatriation of migrants to ISIS by four countries of the Western Balkans: Albania, BiH, Kosovo and Republic of North Macedonia.
December 7, 2021

Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

The 31st workshop of the Study Group Regional Stability in South East Europe was convened in Belgrade, Serbia in September 2015. Under the overarching title of “Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans” 30 experts from the South East European region, the international community and major stakeholder met under the umbrella of the PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes and the Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports.
December 7, 2021

Rehabilitation for Foreign Fighters?

This Policy Brief aims to inform the current debate on integrating rehabilitation into the overall approach to foreign fighters by highlighting the challenges and opportunities within the criminal justice sector response to the phenomenon.
December 7, 2021

Threat from Returning Foreign Fighters in the Western Balkans

This report looks at key trends and developments related to the return of FFTs from the six Western Balkans jurisdictions and the capacity and possibilities for their disengagement, de-radicalization, rehabilitation, and reintegration.
December 2, 2021

Balkan Foreign Figthers

‘Balkan jihadists’ are mostly young people, typically between 20 and 35 years of age, coming from remote rural areas, usually poor and unemployed, with little work experience or skills to offer. Being marginalised and stigmatised in deeply divided societies burdened with the legacy of war.
December 2, 2021

Islamist Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

BiH was a destination for hundreds of Muslim foreign fighters during the 92-95 war, who brought with them their belligerent interpretation of Islam. Years after, the country has an indigenous Salafi community , being a source of mujahideen.
December 2, 2021

Kosovo’s experience in repatriating FTFs

This policy brief examines Kosovo’s response to the phenomenon of foreign fighters.
December 2, 2021

North Macedonia’s Drivers to Violent Extremism

This article nalyses the drivers to violent extremism in North Macedonia and the rates of regional FTFs.
December 2, 2021

Approaches to P/CVE in Prison and Probation

Adams, T. This paper presents the practitioners' perspective, aiming to be of value for other practitioners in the field. It provides an overview of the principal findings emerging in the context of radicalisation, focusing on the prison and probation settings.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK