Radicalisation Models and Mechanisms

December 17, 2021

Strategy on Prevention of Violent Extremism and Radicalisation Leading to Terrorism

Strategic objectives determined under this strategic document aims to address the push and pull factors that influence the radicalization of the population, with special emphasis on the youth.
December 17, 2021

Prevention of Radicalisation on Social Media and the Internet

This chapter focuses on the prevention of radicalization on social media and the internet in this digital age.
December 17, 2021

Religious Radicalisation and Violent Islamist Extremism in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo

This article aims to present an analysis of internal and external factors that have contributed to the development of the phenomenon: the economic, social and ideological aspects, and the areas most affected by this issue.
December 17, 2021

Online Extremism

The review concludes by considering the emergent literature on how violent extremism is being countered online, touching on both defensive and offensive measures.
December 17, 2021

A Genealogy of Radical Islam

A genealogy of the radical ideas that underline al-Qaeda’s justification for violence shows that the development of jihadi thought over the past several decades is characterized by the erosion of critical constraints used to limit warfare and violence in classical Islam.
December 17, 2021

The EU and other Stakeholders’ Prevention Strategies Towards VE in Albania

This policy paper focuses on the aptness of the EU and other stakeholders’ prevention strategies towards violent extremism in Albania.
December 17, 2021

The Status of Violent Extremism in Albania

This study is prepared in the framework of the project “Countering violent extremism in Albania – Persisting violent extremist forms and threats and the way forward to reinforced PVE”, supported financially by the Public Affairs Office of the US Embassy in Tirana.
December 17, 2021

Radicalisation in The Digital Era

This paper presents the results from exploratory primary research into the role of the internet in the radicalisation of 15 terrorists and extremists in the UK.
December 17, 2021

Countering Radicalisation in America

The challenges European authorities have had to face are similar to those their U.S. counterparts are expected to confront, and several lessons are at hand from the European experience.
December 17, 2021

The Problems of Radicalisation and Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons

The article examines the problem of radicalization among the incarcerated in places of confinement.
December 17, 2021

Belgian and Dutch Converts Joining the Islamic State

This Research Note sketched a more complex picture of converts joining IS than the one presented by the media.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance and Respect for Diversity

This paper does not focus solely on religiously-inspired violent extremism. Many drivers apply to other forms of extreme behavior. Radical behavior in itself is not necessarily a problem. Non-violent radical behavior, especially if undertaken purposely in the political, economic or cultural sphere, can help to promote positive change. Violent extremism kicks in when radical behavior starts making use of indiscriminate violence as the means of expression.
December 16, 2021

Radicalization in Prisons? Field Research in 25 Spanish Prisons

This article has two principal objectives: (1) to study the behavioral dimensions of Muslim prisoners which predict their Islamist radicalism and (2) to study whether the behavior manifested by them is higher in prisons with a greater concentration of Muslims and a higher presence of prisoners convicted for Islamist terrorism than in prisons with fewer Muslims and no convicted Islamist terrorists.
December 16, 2021

Psychological Mechanisms Involved in Radicalisation and Extremism

A complete and clear conceptualization is crucial for developing prevention/intervention programs and good practices in dealing with this process which has been spreading in the past years. The final part deals with directions regarding prevention/intervention programs from a rational emotive and behavioral perspective, and also from the perspective of European policies.
December 16, 2021

Lone Actors in Digital Environments

his paper aims to provide an overview of digital environments and draw insights from qualitative research and monitoring of RWE online subcultures that reveals a shift towards a post-organisational reality, whereby online structures and subcultural milieus could be equally important for inspiring violence as connections to groups in the physical world.
December 16, 2021

Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism

Here, I scrutinize such charges by examining 18 years of radical environmentalism for evidence of violence and for indications of violent tendencies.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Macedonia

Using the data collected during the fieldwork exercise, the report aims to determine what makes each aforementioned municipality more or less affected by violent radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mind-Set

In the present article, the authors report on the development of a scale for the measurement of the militant extremist mind-set.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mindset and the Assessment of Radicalization in the General Population

This paper presents new data and reviews the available evidence pointing to the existence of three main ingredients of militant extremist mindset.
December 16, 2021

“Electronic Jihad”: The Internet as al-Qaeda’s Catalyst for Global Terror

This study will examine the evolving doctrine of ‘Electronic Jihad and its impact on the radicalization of Muslims in Western diaspora communities
December 16, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism in Prisons

This paper provides an overview of some of the most important research findings that have emerged on prison and violent extremism in recent years. Drawing on this research, the article synthesises and assesses the dominating themes and views in the literature. The paper also identifies a number of significant knowledge gaps that deserve further scholarly attention.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation in the West: The Homegrown Threat

The aim of this report is to assist policymakers and law enforcement officials, both in Washington and throughout the country, by providing a thorough understanding of the kind of threat we face domestically. It also seeks to contribute to the debate among intelligence and law enforcement agencies on how best to counter this emerging threat by better understanding what constitutes the radicalization process.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion

Based on an in-depth literature review, this paper seeks to explore key terms and the discourses surrounding them in greater detail.
December 16, 2021

The Gamification of Violent Extremism & Lessons for P/CVE

After providing a brief introduction to gamification as such, this paper provides an overview of the use of gamification within extremist communities and the mechanisms by which it makes propaganda more attractive. Then, the potential for gamification in the P/CVE context is considered.
December 16, 2021

Extremists’ Use of Gaming platforms

The first part of the paper discusses how traditional gaming (adjacent) platforms have contributed to extremist activities.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States:

The findings of this review suggest that approaches to deradicalisation should consider the importance of building communities through improved links between state-security, health, education and social care.
December 16, 2021

From Terrorism to ‘Radicalisation’ to ‘Extremism

This article argues that the discourses of radicalization and, more lately, of extremism have served to confuse the remit of counterterrorism.
December 16, 2021

The Root Causes of Violent Extremism

This brief issue paper provides a summary of ‘root causes’ leading to violent extremism.
December 15, 2021

The role of sports and leisure activities in preventing and countering violent extremism

. Cooperating with youth professionals and applying pedagogical methods can create opportunities for youngsters to work on the attitudes and life skills that make them resilient to ideological exploitation and the lure of extremist violence.
December 15, 2021

Galvanising Youth in Combatting Online Disinformation

he following conclusion paper presents the outcomes of this meeting. The challenges and experiences of young people, as well as the young people’s perspectives on opportunities and strategies to counter disinformation, can be found under ‘Highlights of the discussion’. The second part of this paper offers actionable recommendations for practitioners who want to engage young people in strategies for combatting disinformation online
December 15, 2021

Understanding The Mental Health Disorders Pathway Leading to Violent Extremism

This paper identifies risk factors that make these people vulnerable to violent extremism, as well as ways that professionals can assess protective factors which may contribute to safeguarding them.
December 15, 2021

Delivering Counter and Alternative Narratives

The overall objectives of delivering CN or AN are likely to be uniform across actors: to deter individual(s) or group(s) from violent extremism through supporting alternatives or challenging narratives. More specific goals will vary according to different actors’ positions in society.
December 15, 2021

Social Identity Theory for Investigating Islamic Extremism in the Diaspora

This paper attempts to contribute to the discussion on the role of identity in radicalization by using social identity theory. In doing so, the article explores the formation and transformation process of social identities, and argues that the nature of communitylevel groups and networks may contribute to identity ‘readiness’ for radicalization
December 15, 2021

R2PRIS: Methodological Framework

This report was developed by the partnership of R2PRIS Radicalisation Prevention in Prisons (2015-1-PT01-KA204-013062) project with the aim of presenting its first deliverable: the R2PRIS Methodological Framework.
December 15, 2021

Issues of Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in Macedonia

The primary objective of this report is to examine the extent to which radicalisation and violent extremism is related to the practice of Islam. That said, the report does not qualify this type of extremism as the main security challenge in Macedonia due to the presence of other forms of extremism, such as nationalism. As the findings of the report will explain, religious extremism is often juxtaposed with nationalism.
December 14, 2021

Home Grown Terrorism and Islamist Radicalisation in Europe

An assessment of the factors influencing violent Islamist extremism and suggestions for counter radicalisation measures.
December 14, 2021

Radicalisation Research – Gap Analysis

This paper presents an overview of these research gaps as they have been outlined in the literature, in particular in the individual research papers on the RAN focus areas; as they have been voiced by practitioners and academics during the first RAN research seminar held between 12-13 April, 2016, in Vienna, Austria; and as communicated by WG leaders and the RAN Editorial Board in their feedback to this paper. It proceeds with describing research gaps that have been noted in all focus areas, followed by gaps which are specific to certain areas.
December 14, 2021

Violent Extremism in Kosova: What Community resilience Can Teach Us?

Challenges such as corruption, organized crime, poor education and health systems, lack of rule of law and poor governance have created an environment of hopelessness for better life in the country and have increased the level of the community’s vulnerability to extremism and radicalism in the country.
December 14, 2021

Foreign Fighters and Kosovo’s Diaspora: The case of Germany

This paper aims to provide some groundwork for research on the radicalisation of immigrants, by investigating why some Kosovar immigrants in Germany have joined violent extremism organisations like IS and Hayat Tahrir al Sham. In particular, the paper identifies some of the consequences of shifting social dynamics and identity formation as the ties between the diaspora community and the country of origin change over time.
December 14, 2021

Violent Extremism: Definition and Terminology

This guide is an effort by the Kosovo Center for Security Studies (KCSS) to address, in cooperation with Kosovo media, the absence of a compendium of the terminology and practices, in order to properly respond to the need for more accurate and substantive surveys and reporting on the phenomenon of violent extremism in Kosovo. This guide is a product of KCCS’s research and of the longstanding experience of its researchers on recognizing and studying violent extremism and its origin in Kosovo, compiled with the support of the US Department of State and the US Embassy in Kosovo and through broad consultations with Kosovo media news desks, editors, journalists and local reporters from municipalities and the capital.
December 14, 2021

Countering the Cultivation of Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This policy note explores a number of reasons why the BiH educational system is failing to proactively and preventively respond, and why this is a matter for concern.
December 14, 2021

Trends of Radicalisation Bosnia and Herzegovina

This report will examine the trends of radicalization in Bosnia and Herzegovina using two hotspots as that represent the manifestations of radicalization in currant Bosnia and Herzegovin
December 14, 2021

Stakeholders of (De)- Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This report examines the main radicalisation and de-radicalisation processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including main influences of certain individuals, institutions and groups who influencing these processes. It will also discuss types of radicalism that has been recorded in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2001 and what are the main drivers of radicalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
December 14, 2021

Rethinking Radicalisation

This report explores how the unsubstantiated “religious conveyor belt” theory has influenced our response to radicalization among American Muslims and the consequences that have ensued. Since much of the government’s response to radicalization is driven by perceptions of the risk of homegrown terrorist attacks, the report begins by demonstrating the differences of opinion between the Intelligence Community and law enforcement agencies regarding this threat.
December 14, 2021

Drivers of Youth Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The findings suggest that a range of factors including demographic characteristics, location, employment status, income, practicing of religion, and civic and political activism are associated with a degree of sympathy for violent extremism among youth in B.i.H.
December 14, 2021

Insights from Neurobiology on Influence and Extremism

These reports will provide the operational and policy communities with a deeper understanding of the unique behavioral and neurobiological factors that underlie political extremism, specifically in the cyber realm.
December 13, 2021

The Moral Questions on the Religious Basis for Terrorism

Having gone this far, we can conclude by saying that every claim for a religious sanctioned terrorism is a faulty one. This is as a result of our understanding of what many mainstream religions preach. Many Islamic, Christian, Hindus etc scholars have so far presented us with the image of religion that preaches peace, justice, etc.
December 13, 2021

An Internet-Mediated Pathway for Online Radicalisation

This chapter proposes an Internet-mediated radicalisation model, RECRO.
December 13, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism: Literature Review

This report consists of a literature review and analysis of the existing research concerning ‘countering violent extremism’. This multifaceted report demonstrates the complexity of understanding Violent Extremism and best strategies to Countering Violent Extremism. This has been undertaken with the broader analysis of radicalisation and social cohesion theories, models and government policies and how they may impact on or contribute to best practice and policy in countering violent extremism.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK