There are multiple ways to examine the root causes of violent extremism. There is no single cause or pathway into radicalisation and violent extremism. There is a wide array of factors on the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels of analysis. Terrorism research has indicated that neither poverty nor socio-economic deprivation are direct root causes of terrorism. Existing research has focused principally on contexts outside the EU and provides broad categories that do not readily conform to the radicalisation or violent extremism of salafi-jihadi individuals within Europe.i This brief issue paper provides a summary of ‘root causes’ leading to violent extremism.