Although the link between extremist ideas and violence is contested and variable, exposure to extremist narratives is undeniably critical to the process of radicalisation. Extremist narratives offer cognitive closure and a quest for significance that psychologists see as fundamental motivators of human behaviour – including towards illegal violence . An extremist narrative is a system of stories that collectively provides a coherent world-view for the purpose of supporting individuals, groups, or movements in the furthering of their illegal violence and violence-assisting activities. Extremist narratives are effective because of their simplicity; their use of scapegoating; their emotional appeals to fear, anger, shame and honour; and their awe-inspiring solutions . Their messages are crafted to exploit identity crisis, and tap into existing beliefs and anxieties within target communities . The manner of transmission is equally vital – it can be online or offline. Popular extremist propaganda often includes: high production value; fast-paced editing; music; a charismatic narrator and a call to action. The professional and sophisticated use of social media by Daesh has been a game-changer. Propaganda spread by terrorists and violent extremists is easily accessible. While the ‘Dark Net’ becomes more important to extremists, the majority of their recruitment efforts are focused on mainstream online platforms. The speed, effectiveness and reach of online extremist messages make prediction and prevention a significant challenge, and authorities are often unable to hold people accountable for this propaganda . Reducing accessibility to extremist material is important, despite the impossibility of ridding the internet of all terrorist material. Providing the skills people need to critique and be sceptical of extremist content is therefore vital. Whilst efforts to reduce accessibility to terrorist content are important, on their own they will not deter those looking for information, nor its appeal once discovered. Reducing the ‘say-do gap’ in any countering radicalisation efforts is vital – recognising that doing the right thing is often more powerful than saying the right thing. Protecting the rights of minorities, addressing grievances, and providing groups and individuals with meaningful opportunities to have a stake in ‘the system’, must operate alongside any counter-narrative or alternative narrative campaign.