December 17, 2021

Online Extremism

The review concludes by considering the emergent literature on how violent extremism is being countered online, touching on both defensive and offensive measures.
December 17, 2021

Online Interventions for Reducing Hate Speech and Cyberhate

The goal of this systematic review is to use an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to examine the effectiveness of online campaigns and strategies for reducing hate speech and cyberhate.
December 17, 2021

Rehabilitation Manual

This manual offers guidance to first line practitioners regarding the rehabilitation of radicalised and terrorist offenders inside as well as outside of prison.
December 16, 2021

Making Sense of Extremism in the Bosnian Football Terraces

This paper presents an initial assessment of the results of a four month research project studying the Ultras1 groups in BiH
December 15, 2021

Violent Right Extremism in Focus

In order to tackle violent right-wing extremism, it is key to get a better understanding of the phenomenon. It encompasses a diverse range of different ideologies and narratives that coexist with more traditional right-wing extremist ideologies like national socialism and fascism
December 15, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation to Terrorism and Violent Extremism: Approaches and Practices

In recent years, the processes of radicalisation leading to violent extremism have greatly evolved. The variety of ideologies that provide inspiration for extremist groups is growing and include religious inspired extremism, left wing, anarchist and right wing ideologies as well as nationalist and separatist ideologies. Extremists are also no longer acting only as part of organised, hierarchical organisations but also within smaller cells and sometimes as lone wolves.
December 15, 2021

Local Communications for Returning FTFs

The paper is written for local (preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE)) coordinators and communications experts who are or will be dealing with returning FTFs and who wish to improve their communication strategy in this context.
December 15, 2021

Galvanising Youth in Combatting Online Disinformation

he following conclusion paper presents the outcomes of this meeting. The challenges and experiences of young people, as well as the young people’s perspectives on opportunities and strategies to counter disinformation, can be found under ‘Highlights of the discussion’. The second part of this paper offers actionable recommendations for practitioners who want to engage young people in strategies for combatting disinformation online
December 14, 2021

Signs of Islamist Radicalisation and Extremism in a Country without a Single Terrorist Attack: The Case of Slovenia

The article identifies and studies instances of the transit of foreign Islamists, their finances and arms, provides examples of local foreign fighters and their return, identifies NGOs with radical agendas and attempts at recruitment, as well as threats made to local authorities, training under the cover of a social event, the deportation of extremists, and a foiled terrorist attack. Most of these indicators are linked to Jihadi and Islamist sources of power based in Bosnia.
December 14, 2021

Violent Extremism in Kosova: What Community resilience Can Teach Us?

Challenges such as corruption, organized crime, poor education and health systems, lack of rule of law and poor governance have created an environment of hopelessness for better life in the country and have increased the level of the community’s vulnerability to extremism and radicalism in the country.
December 14, 2021

Foreign Fighters and Kosovo’s Diaspora: The case of Germany

This paper aims to provide some groundwork for research on the radicalisation of immigrants, by investigating why some Kosovar immigrants in Germany have joined violent extremism organisations like IS and Hayat Tahrir al Sham. In particular, the paper identifies some of the consequences of shifting social dynamics and identity formation as the ties between the diaspora community and the country of origin change over time.
December 14, 2021

Kosovo’ s Response to Returnee from the WarZones

This report seeks to address a gap in the existing literature pertaining to the approaches of Kosovo in supporting rehabilitation/deradicalization as well as reintegration of the returnees. By focusing on institutional and policy infrastructure, this report sheds light into the relevance of having a holistic (government + non-government +community), coherent and coordinated response to meet the needs of the returnees and effectively address the challenges for their social and economic reintegration, as well as ideological disengagement.
December 14, 2021

National Approches to Extremism: KOSOVO

First signs of radical and extremist views in Kosovo were identified shortly after the war in 1999. Security agencies that were monitoring such individuals saw their numbers rising in the following years. Through a slow and long-term process, inflammatory imams exploited the existing grievances of Kosovo citizens to proselytise Salafi/Wahhabi forms of radical Islam.
December 14, 2021

Non-custodial Rehabilitation and Reintegration in P/CVE: A Guidebook

While recognizing the need to develop tailored, context- and conflict-sensitive approaches to the challenge, the guide identifies a series of principles that should underpin all non-custodial R&R efforts
December 14, 2021

A Whole-of-Society Approach to Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization

This guidebook is one in a series of guidebooks produced by the ATU on the challenges in developing and implementing effective programmes to prevent and counter VERLT. We anticipate that this guidebook, and our forthcoming publications, will prove to be valuable resources for policymakers and practitioners across the OSCE area who are working to foster inclusive approaches to peace and security. It provides practical guidelines and helpful background for both policymakers and practitioners who are working to advance P/CVERLT initiatives.
December 14, 2021

Drivers of Youth Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The findings suggest that a range of factors including demographic characteristics, location, employment status, income, practicing of religion, and civic and political activism are associated with a degree of sympathy for violent extremism among youth in B.i.H.
December 13, 2021

Prisons and Terrorism

This report offers a wide-ranging analysis of the role prisons can play in radicalising people – and in reforming them. In doing so, it examines the policies and approaches of 15 countries, identifying trade-offs and dilemmas but also principles and best practices that can help governments and policymakers spot new ideas and avoid costly and counterproductive mistakes.
December 13, 2021

The ABC Model

In this commentary, I compare the ABC model of radicalization with the Two Pyramids model of radicalization.
December 13, 2021

The Latent Dangers Of Islamist Extremism In the Western Balkans

The risks of terrorist attacks by Islamist extremists in Kosovo and the countries of the EU still seem to be limited. However, if the political and social crisis escalates in Kosovo and the conflict in the Middle East is exacerbated, which could also lead to a polarization of the public’s attitudes toward Islam, the danger of terrorist attacks by Islamist extremist can’t be ruled out any more in both to Kosovo and the EU countries.
December 13, 2021

The ABC Model: Clarifications and Elaborations

In responding to McCauley’s comments, through this article we have distinguished between the “core” and “optional extra” elements of our ABC model, elaborated on how our interpretation deals with individuals who seemingly become involved in this violence in the interests of the group, “unpacked” the concept of ideology through our ABC lens, and provided recommendations on how to measure attitudes and behaviors.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a multi-ethnic country with a population of 3.5 million split along religious lines. The main Abrahamic religions are present in BiH and are the foundation for ethnic divisions in the country: Bosniak Muslims, Catholic Croats, Orthodox Christian Serbs, and a minority presence of Jews. It became independent from Yugoslavia.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : NORTH MACEDONIA

The Republic of North Macedonia has at least two characteristics that its citizens share: a complex ethnic structure and a strategically important geopolitical location in the Balkans. Most recently, as of 2017 and the formation of the new political government, the country reached two significant bilateral benchmarks: the Greco-Macedonian Prespa Agreement (17 June 2018) and the 2017 Treaty on Friendship, Good Neighbourliness and Cooperation with Bulgaria. This turn of events marks an important milestone in the Macedonian EU integration process.
December 10, 2021

Evaluation of the Netherlands Comprehensive Action Programme to Combat jihadism

The Inspectorate of Security and Justice concludes that the Netherlands comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism has provided positive momentum to the integral approach. The points for improvement proposed in this report can serve to further improve the approach and to put the measures in the Action Programme on a more permanent and regular footing. This reflects the great importance of these measures in the fight against radicalisation, extremism and terrorism in the Netherlands.
December 9, 2021

Risks, Radicalisation and Rehabilitation

The paper examines the risks and management of radicalised prisoners post-release.
December 7, 2021

Criminalization as Anxious and Ineffective Response to Foreign Fighters Phenomenon

I argue that this broader criminal law approach is difficult to justify from either preventive or reactive perspectives. It is, in fact, an anxious and ineffective response to foreign fighters phenomenon.
December 7, 2021

Understanding the radicalisation process from psychological perspectives

This literature review, prepared by Dr. Ayşenur Benevento, investigates the psychology’s foundational theories and overviews their contributions to the study of radicalisation from a psychological perspective.
December 7, 2021

Inclusiveness in Kosovo’s Security Sector

This paper provides an overview of the current level of inclusion of non-majority communities in Kosovo Police and the Kosovo Security Forces.
December 7, 2021

A social-developmental model of radicalisation

this article sketches a new social-developmental model based on a systematic integration of theories and empirical findings.
December 7, 2021

Jihadism and Far-Right Extremism

The article suggests that no radicalisation process occurs in complete isolation. On the contrary, individuals are radicalised through online (and offline) socialisation, be it continuous and long-lasting or irregular and erratic.
December 7, 2021

Responding to Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

This report examines the drivers and mechanisms of Islamist and far-right radicalization and recruitment in the Western Balkans — specifically in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Serbia.
December 7, 2021

How hateful extremists are exploiting the pandemic

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, the Commission for Countering Extremism has heard increasing reports of extremists exploiting the crisis to sow division and undermine the social fabric of our country.
December 7, 2021

Reshaping the Islamist Terrorist Phenomenon in South-Eastern Europe

This paper aims to shed new light on the phenomenon of Islamist violent extremism across the Western Balkans.
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation in Bulgaria

The report provides policy makers and the expert community with a systematic overview of the main risks to which the Bulgarian society is exposed, as well as of the main actors and ideas, the repertoire of actions and the groups at risk associated with radicalisation.
December 7, 2021

Bulgaria’s National Approaches to Extremism

The types of radicalisation discussed in this report are Islamist and far-right. They vary significantly in terms of spread, manifestations, organisation and number of individuals involved, as well as the popular attention.
December 7, 2021

Countering illegal hate speech

The fifth evaluation on the Code of Conduct on Countering Illegal Hate Speech Online shows that the Code continues to deliver positive results. On average 90% of the notifications are reviewed within 24 hours and 71% of the content is removed.
December 7, 2021

A Counter Terrorism Agenda for the EU

This new Counter-Terrorism Agenda, announced in the EU’s Security Union Strategy, brings together existing and new strands of work in a joined-up approach to combatting terrorism.
December 7, 2021

On the EU Security Union Strategy

The new Security Union strategy lays the foundations for a security ecosystem that spans the entire breadth of European society.
December 7, 2021

Social media interactions, online radicalisation and Conversation Analysis

This paper aims to fill this gap in violent radicalisation research. It propuses to use Conversational Annalysis for the examination of the interactions occuring between extremist and potential recruiters on social media platforms.
December 7, 2021

Countering Extremists on Social Media

This special issue focuses on one form of strategic communication, countering violent extremism. In this editorial we discuss the background and effectiveness of this approach, and introduce five articles which develop multiple strands of research into responses and solutions to extremist exploitation of social media
December 2, 2021

Kosovo’s experience in repatriating FTFs

This policy brief examines Kosovo’s response to the phenomenon of foreign fighters.