Report

December 17, 2021

Country Profile: Albania

This Country Profile provides a brief overview of religious diversity and its governance in the above-named state.
December 17, 2021

Countering Radicalisation in America

The challenges European authorities have had to face are similar to those their U.S. counterparts are expected to confront, and several lessons are at hand from the European experience.
December 17, 2021

Countering Radicalisation in Europe

The report seeks to highlight challenges common to the four countries examined. From the onset, European authorities have struggled to identify the target of their actions. Most recently, authorities throughout the continent seem to have shifted their focus from the broader phenomenon of extremism to the narrower subcategory of violent radicalization.
December 17, 2021

A Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers

This report describes the Office of the Inspector General’s (OIG) review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ (BOP) policies and procedures for the selection of individuals who provide Islamic religious services to federal inmates.
December 16, 2021

Religious Tolerance in Albania

The present study finds that the foundations of religious tolerance in Albania are deeply rooted in the societal traditions and culture rather than from religious awareness, knowledge or practice.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Country Report: Bosnia and Herzegovina

This Country Report offers a detailed assessment of religious diversity and violent religious radicalisation in the above-named state. It is part of a series covering 23 countries (listed below) on four continents. More basic information about religious affiliation and state-religion relations in these states is available in our Country Profiles series. This report was produced by GREASE, an EU-funded research project investigating religious diversity, secularism and religiously inspired radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The purpose of this research was to identify common and distinct factors of resilience or vulnerability to violent extremism in Bosnian communities as well as the influence of key actors on those factors.
December 16, 2021

Extremism Research Forum: Macedonia

The report thematically presents the levels, forms, and threats of extremism in Macedonia by outlining the definitional variances between violent and non-violent extremism, the waves of Islamist extremism, the phenomenon of foreign fighters, and burgeoning nationalist extremism and its political undertones.
December 16, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism in Macedonia

In view of these realities, this policy brief proposes four recommendations, based on a broader, more holistic grassroots approach, which would assist the Republic of Macedonia in moving away from a “whole-of-government” strategy to a “whole-of-society” strategy which includes all stakeholders in the CVE.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Macedonia

Using the data collected during the fieldwork exercise, the report aims to determine what makes each aforementioned municipality more or less affected by violent radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Stakeholders of (De)- Radicalisation in Serbia

This report aims to depict and analyze the context of radicalisation in Republic of Serbia in the period from 2000 to 2021 as a part of the Work Package “Mapping Stakeholders and Situations of Radicalisation” of the D.Rad project. It puts emphasis on the most important acts of violence that indicate current and future trends of radicalisation and de-radicalisation; provides insight into how the political elite and general public perceive extremism, radicalisation and violent threats; and maps out the agents and channels of radicalisation and de-radicalisation
December 16, 2021

Civil Society Organisations in Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

This regional mapping has been produced for the project: “Communities First: Creation of a civil society hub to prevent and counter violent extremism” (the Hub).
December 16, 2021

Reporting about Violent Extremism and P/CVE Challenges for Journalists

This paper will address some of the most relevant challenges by introducing key insights and recommendations on how to follow a “do no harm” approach when informing the public, and particularly when reporting about violence. The role of civil society organisations working on P/CVE will also be highlighted.
December 15, 2021

R2PRIS: Methodological Framework

This report was developed by the partnership of R2PRIS Radicalisation Prevention in Prisons (2015-1-PT01-KA204-013062) project with the aim of presenting its first deliverable: the R2PRIS Methodological Framework.
December 15, 2021

Issues of Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in Macedonia

The primary objective of this report is to examine the extent to which radicalisation and violent extremism is related to the practice of Islam. That said, the report does not qualify this type of extremism as the main security challenge in Macedonia due to the presence of other forms of extremism, such as nationalism. As the findings of the report will explain, religious extremism is often juxtaposed with nationalism.
December 14, 2021

Violent Extremism in Kosova: What Community resilience Can Teach Us?

Challenges such as corruption, organized crime, poor education and health systems, lack of rule of law and poor governance have created an environment of hopelessness for better life in the country and have increased the level of the community’s vulnerability to extremism and radicalism in the country.
December 14, 2021

New Threats of Violent Extremism in Kosovo

Yet, despite Government’s willingness to take ownership of the issue, with no reintegration program in place and a public largely unwilling to welcome the foreign fighters back, their return and the continued radicalization on the ground are poised to become Kosovo’s greatest national security threat to date.
December 14, 2021

Kosovo’ s Response to Returnee from the WarZones

This report seeks to address a gap in the existing literature pertaining to the approaches of Kosovo in supporting rehabilitation/deradicalization as well as reintegration of the returnees. By focusing on institutional and policy infrastructure, this report sheds light into the relevance of having a holistic (government + non-government +community), coherent and coordinated response to meet the needs of the returnees and effectively address the challenges for their social and economic reintegration, as well as ideological disengagement.
December 14, 2021

Countering the Cultivation of Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This policy note explores a number of reasons why the BiH educational system is failing to proactively and preventively respond, and why this is a matter for concern.
December 14, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation in Prisons

The following is a summary of proceedings setting out some of the key issues that emerged during the wide-ranging discussion, looking at some of the international practice that was shared during the meeting and concluding with some practical recommendations for future action.
December 14, 2021

Trends of Radicalisation Bosnia and Herzegovina

This report will examine the trends of radicalization in Bosnia and Herzegovina using two hotspots as that represent the manifestations of radicalization in currant Bosnia and Herzegovin
December 14, 2021

Stakeholders of (De)- Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This report examines the main radicalisation and de-radicalisation processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including main influences of certain individuals, institutions and groups who influencing these processes. It will also discuss types of radicalism that has been recorded in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2001 and what are the main drivers of radicalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
December 14, 2021

National Approches to Extremism: KOSOVO

First signs of radical and extremist views in Kosovo were identified shortly after the war in 1999. Security agencies that were monitoring such individuals saw their numbers rising in the following years. Through a slow and long-term process, inflammatory imams exploited the existing grievances of Kosovo citizens to proselytise Salafi/Wahhabi forms of radical Islam.
December 14, 2021

Overview on the Project “P/CVE & Radicalisation that Lead to Terrorism in Prisons and within probation services”

The Presence’s support to the prison system and probation service aligns with the position held by the OSCE, as well as with the fact that these institutions play a vital role internationally in managing Violent Extremism and Radicalization that Lead to Terrorism (VERLT) risks.
December 14, 2021

Drivers of Youth Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The findings suggest that a range of factors including demographic characteristics, location, employment status, income, practicing of religion, and civic and political activism are associated with a degree of sympathy for violent extremism among youth in B.i.H.
December 13, 2021

Prisons and Terrorism

This report offers a wide-ranging analysis of the role prisons can play in radicalising people – and in reforming them. In doing so, it examines the policies and approaches of 15 countries, identifying trade-offs and dilemmas but also principles and best practices that can help governments and policymakers spot new ideas and avoid costly and counterproductive mistakes.
December 13, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism: Literature Review

This report consists of a literature review and analysis of the existing research concerning ‘countering violent extremism’. This multifaceted report demonstrates the complexity of understanding Violent Extremism and best strategies to Countering Violent Extremism. This has been undertaken with the broader analysis of radicalisation and social cohesion theories, models and government policies and how they may impact on or contribute to best practice and policy in countering violent extremism.
December 13, 2021

Reintegration of Returining Foreign Fighters

Consequently, it is an immediate need for Kosovo to develop its own model based on local capacities and expertise, whlist taking into consideration specific cases and contexts. Rather, across the field there exists a conundrum of approaches to re-radicalisation that do not stem derive from a consultative and coordinated process.
December 13, 2021

Community Perspectives on Preventing Violent Extremism

This comparative synthesis report – building on four country case studies covering Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo and Macedonia – was produced in the framework of a participatory research project on “Opportunities for Preventing Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans”. Together with with four local research partners, we explore why some communities are particularly affected by individuals inspired by and/or joining the Islamic State (IS) or similar violent extremist groups, while other communities may show greater resilience to the same phenomenon. The project also includes policy outreach activities, both nationally and internationally, as well as local dialogue initiatives, in cooperation with local stakeholders and affected communities, in order to explore and develop strategies to prevent violent radicalisation in the Western Balkans in light of the research findings.
December 13, 2021

Religious Radicalism and Violent Extremism In Albania

This study has collected, generated, and analyzed data on the phenomenon of religious radicalization and violent extremism with the aim of informing policymaking and stakeholders involved in addressing this phenomenon and the challenges interrelated with it. The research methodology approaches the identification and comprehensive analysis of the context by employing a variety of sources to understand the extent and relevance of several factors that enable or fuel religious radicalization and forms of violent extremism.
December 13, 2021

Violent Extremism in The Western Balkans: Literature Review

This review will be also of interest to the international donor community who would be interested in funding research projects on violent extremism in the Western Balkans. This review aims to also map out new avenues of research, and it does so by identifying gaps that remain in current literature, as well as some shortcomings in existing research.
December 13, 2021

Cultural Drivers of Radicalisation: Kosovo

This report examines the use of media objects by the proponents of the Islamic State in Kosovo to trigger radicalization in the country by weaving in past political social grievances of discrimination and underrepresentation and evoking deep-seated traumas caused by the 1998-1999 war in Kosovo to conjure up a rallying cry of defiance to secular authorities and to the democratic order.
December 13, 2021

The Islamic Narrative in Kosovo

Given the potency of the IS propaganda to catalyze the radicalization process and its role in inspiring individuals to commit themselves to violent extremism, KCSS compiled this report with the aim to identify, deconstruct, analyze, contextualize and interpret the IS propaganda targeting Kosovo Albanians as well as to reveal the tools employed to spread this narrative among different audiences in Kosovo. In Kosovo’s case, this report finds that the narrative, while laced with religious language and injected with Koranic verses, in essence speaks to local issues. It seeks to utilize local disgruntlement, past grievances as well as events pertaining to the 1998-1999 to mobilize its supporters in Kosovo.
December 13, 2021

Assessment of Violent Extremism in Serbia

This assessment dealt with the root causes and drivers of VE in Serbia. It identified four different types of extremism: a) religiously-motivated extremism, including foreign fighters in the Middle East; b) ideologically-motivated (right-wing) extremism, which included Serbian nationals traveling to fight for the pro-Russian side in Ukraine; c) ethnically-motivated extremism; and d) hooliganism. All four types recognized in this research are rooted, directly or indirectly, in the context cited above. We will here summarize all underlying factors and drivers shared by these seemingly distinct types of extremism.
December 13, 2021

Citizens Perceptions on the New Threats of Violent Extremism In Kosovo

This report consists of data analysis on perceptions regarding threat of violent extremism and trust towards stakeholders involved in prevention of this phenomena. It is divided in three main sessions: the first focuses on general perceptions about violent extremism and other forms of extremism such as: ethnically motivated violence, political violence and religiously motivated violence; the second outlines the perceptions towards risks and threats of returned fighters, and community willingness to accept former fighters and women/minors; the last session focuses on the perceptions towards stakeholders involved in implementation of the CVE strategy.
December 13, 2021

Citizens Perception and Community Response on Returned Foreign Fighters

According to the Strategy, reintegration of potentially radicalized persons or at the stage of radicalization should be an inclusive and specific process. Further, the Malta Principles for Reintegrating Returning Foreign Terrorist Fighters highlights that effective assessments should be done, in order to design programs with individuals in mind whether they serve FTFs returnees, their families or vulnerable individuals.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a multi-ethnic country with a population of 3.5 million split along religious lines. The main Abrahamic religions are present in BiH and are the foundation for ethnic divisions in the country: Bosniak Muslims, Catholic Croats, Orthodox Christian Serbs, and a minority presence of Jews. It became independent from Yugoslavia.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : NORTH MACEDONIA

The Republic of North Macedonia has at least two characteristics that its citizens share: a complex ethnic structure and a strategically important geopolitical location in the Balkans. Most recently, as of 2017 and the formation of the new political government, the country reached two significant bilateral benchmarks: the Greco-Macedonian Prespa Agreement (17 June 2018) and the 2017 Treaty on Friendship, Good Neighbourliness and Cooperation with Bulgaria. This turn of events marks an important milestone in the Macedonian EU integration process.
December 10, 2021

Empirical Assessment of Domestic Radicalization

The results of the EADR project lend good support to radicalization mechanisms that are based on personal and collective psychology. That said, our analysis failed to account for the radicalization pathways of 15 of 35 cases of violent extremism that were analyzed, which indicates that extant radicalization research does not account for all of the causal conditions that can contribute to radicalization processes. Future research efforts should focus on interviews with extremists and panel surveys of at-risk populations in order to identify these missing conditions
December 10, 2021

Vulnerability and Resilience to Violent Extremism in Kosovo

By focusing on the legacy of two distinct communities in the last six years since the appearance of violent extremism in Kosovo and the trajectory of their conduct over this period, this study seeks to shed light on the central role that formal and informal structures embedded in the communities have in preventing and countering radicalisation and violent extremism
December 10, 2021

Women in Violent Extremism

Historically, women have been victims to a much greater degree than perprators of violence. The situation is gradually changing in the context of globalization and new security challenges. Recently, we have been witnessing an increase of women involvement in violent extremist organisations including participation in foreign conflicts. These organisations – often united around a common political or religious ideology – represents one of the many emerging complex threats to international peace and security. In order to create an effective response to this problem, it is initially important to depict why women increasingly join violent extremists organizations and what is their role within the groups. Research and experience to date have shown that women can enable, support, be victims of, counteract and prevent violent extremism. Their roles and experiences are not monochromatic but rather diverse and shaped by context, community and history.1 Women, albeit portrayed as passive agents, have been participating in recent terrorist organizations more frequently and in many different ways. Women have been participating in terrorist organizations as caretakers and care providers, they have been promoting violent extremist ideologies and have been recruiting other women to join violent extremist groups. Furthermore, there are sources implying that in some cases women have taken up weapons and are fighting in the ground.2 The purpose of this research is to shed light on the women from Kosovo who participate in violent extremists organizations and potential consequences deriving from their role. While the report will be solely focused on Kosovo, it will bring international knowledge in treating this phenomenon having in mind that Kosovo marks no general exception when compared to other countries. The goal is to particularly identify who these women are, why would they participate in these conflicts, and what is their role.
December 10, 2021

National Report on Youth Radicalisation in Greece

The purpose of the national report is to present the state of the art in terms of youth radicalisation, which will be based on the use of positive psychology, restorative justice and the GLM.
December 10, 2021

Evaluation of the Netherlands Comprehensive Action Programme to Combat jihadism

The Inspectorate of Security and Justice concludes that the Netherlands comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism has provided positive momentum to the integral approach. The points for improvement proposed in this report can serve to further improve the approach and to put the measures in the Action Programme on a more permanent and regular footing. This reflects the great importance of these measures in the fight against radicalisation, extremism and terrorism in the Netherlands.
December 10, 2021

Roots of Violent Radicalisation

Violent radicalisation is clearly a problem within the UK but it takes place within an international context and it is important for the UK authorities to be aware of developments elsewhere and to share information with partners abroad, both in respect of extremist Islamist organisations or movements, and in respect of extreme right-wing groups within Europe and America.
December 9, 2021

Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions

The purpose of this research is three-fold: to collect baseline information on non-traditional religions in United States correctional institutions; to identify the personal and social motivations for prisoners’ conversions to these faith groups; and to assess the prisoners’ potential for terrorist recruitment.
December 9, 2021

Trends of Radicalisation: Hungary

Our findings show that the proliferation of right-wing radical movements, coupled with the wider socio-political context, has had a significant effect on perpetrators.
December 7, 2021

Religion in prisons

A 50-State Survey of Prison Chaplains” presents a rare window into religion behind bars.
December 7, 2021

Understanding radicalisation in the Western Balkans

This research usefully informs policy development, providing practical recommendations, while also feeding into an overarching regional report, where broader linkages and key transnational issues that have been identified.
December 7, 2021

The challenge of resocialisation: Dealing with radicalised individuals in prison and probation

The paper has a special focus on radicalised individuals during and after imprisonment.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK