Radicalisation Risk Factors

December 17, 2021

Strategy on Prevention of Violent Extremism and Radicalisation Leading to Terrorism

Strategic objectives determined under this strategic document aims to address the push and pull factors that influence the radicalization of the population, with special emphasis on the youth.
December 17, 2021

Religious Radicalisation and Violent Islamist Extremism in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo

This article aims to present an analysis of internal and external factors that have contributed to the development of the phenomenon: the economic, social and ideological aspects, and the areas most affected by this issue.
December 17, 2021

The Status of Violent Extremism in Albania

This study is prepared in the framework of the project “Countering violent extremism in Albania – Persisting violent extremist forms and threats and the way forward to reinforced PVE”, supported financially by the Public Affairs Office of the US Embassy in Tirana.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalisation to Violence in Prisons

The focus of this Handbook is on adult male and female violent extremist prisoners. The specific issue of children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having committed violent extremist offences will be dealt with in a separate UNODC publication, recognizing the different legal regime applicable to children deprived of their liberty. Collective disengagement from violent extremism is also not covered in this Handbook, as its focus is on the individual prisoner and interventions aimed at individual disengagement from violence.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance and Respect for Diversity

This paper does not focus solely on religiously-inspired violent extremism. Many drivers apply to other forms of extreme behavior. Radical behavior in itself is not necessarily a problem. Non-violent radical behavior, especially if undertaken purposely in the political, economic or cultural sphere, can help to promote positive change. Violent extremism kicks in when radical behavior starts making use of indiscriminate violence as the means of expression.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The purpose of this research was to identify common and distinct factors of resilience or vulnerability to violent extremism in Bosnian communities as well as the influence of key actors on those factors.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Macedonia

Using the data collected during the fieldwork exercise, the report aims to determine what makes each aforementioned municipality more or less affected by violent radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mind-Set

In the present article, the authors report on the development of a scale for the measurement of the militant extremist mind-set.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mindset and the Assessment of Radicalization in the General Population

This paper presents new data and reviews the available evidence pointing to the existence of three main ingredients of militant extremist mindset.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation in the West: The Homegrown Threat

The aim of this report is to assist policymakers and law enforcement officials, both in Washington and throughout the country, by providing a thorough understanding of the kind of threat we face domestically. It also seeks to contribute to the debate among intelligence and law enforcement agencies on how best to counter this emerging threat by better understanding what constitutes the radicalization process.
December 16, 2021

Protective and Promotive Factors Building Resilience Against Violent Radicalisation

To this end, the paper: (1) specifies which risk factors can be mitigated by which protective factors; (2) explains the importance of promotive factors in mitigating risk; (3) explains the importance of promotive factors in enhancing well-being and strengthening individual and societal resilience; (4) presents a kaleidoscopic overview, including implications for policies and practices
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion

Based on an in-depth literature review, this paper seeks to explore key terms and the discourses surrounding them in greater detail.
December 16, 2021

The Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Criminal Justice and Rehabilitation Process

This literature review begins by providing an overview of the history of risk assessment as a science and introduces key terms and theories.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States:

The findings of this review suggest that approaches to deradicalisation should consider the importance of building communities through improved links between state-security, health, education and social care.
December 16, 2021

The Root Causes of Violent Extremism

This brief issue paper provides a summary of ‘root causes’ leading to violent extremism.
December 15, 2021

The role of sports and leisure activities in preventing and countering violent extremism

. Cooperating with youth professionals and applying pedagogical methods can create opportunities for youngsters to work on the attitudes and life skills that make them resilient to ideological exploitation and the lure of extremist violence.
December 15, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation to Terrorism and Violent Extremism: Approaches and Practices

In recent years, the processes of radicalisation leading to violent extremism have greatly evolved. The variety of ideologies that provide inspiration for extremist groups is growing and include religious inspired extremism, left wing, anarchist and right wing ideologies as well as nationalist and separatist ideologies. Extremists are also no longer acting only as part of organised, hierarchical organisations but also within smaller cells and sometimes as lone wolves.
December 15, 2021

Understanding The Mental Health Disorders Pathway Leading to Violent Extremism

This paper identifies risk factors that make these people vulnerable to violent extremism, as well as ways that professionals can assess protective factors which may contribute to safeguarding them.
December 15, 2021

Revisiting the Notion of Prison as a Breeding Ground for Radicalisation

This ex post highlights these issues and the outcomes of the meeting’s discussions will also feed into enhancing the RAN P&P Practitioners’ Paper, third edition (to be expected early 2019).
December 15, 2021

Social Identity Theory for Investigating Islamic Extremism in the Diaspora

This paper attempts to contribute to the discussion on the role of identity in radicalization by using social identity theory. In doing so, the article explores the formation and transformation process of social identities, and argues that the nature of communitylevel groups and networks may contribute to identity ‘readiness’ for radicalization
December 14, 2021

Home Grown Terrorism and Islamist Radicalisation in Europe

An assessment of the factors influencing violent Islamist extremism and suggestions for counter radicalisation measures.
December 14, 2021

Poverty, Minority Economic Discrimination, and Domestic terrorism

Central to this study is the argument that because terrorism is not a mass phenomenon but rather is undertaken by politically marginal actors with often narrow constituencies, the economic status of subnational groups is a crucial potential predictor of attacks
December 14, 2021

Violent Extremism in Kosova: What Community resilience Can Teach Us?

Challenges such as corruption, organized crime, poor education and health systems, lack of rule of law and poor governance have created an environment of hopelessness for better life in the country and have increased the level of the community’s vulnerability to extremism and radicalism in the country.
December 14, 2021

Trends of Radicalisation Bosnia and Herzegovina

This report will examine the trends of radicalization in Bosnia and Herzegovina using two hotspots as that represent the manifestations of radicalization in currant Bosnia and Herzegovin
December 14, 2021

Rethinking Radicalisation

This report explores how the unsubstantiated “religious conveyor belt” theory has influenced our response to radicalization among American Muslims and the consequences that have ensued. Since much of the government’s response to radicalization is driven by perceptions of the risk of homegrown terrorist attacks, the report begins by demonstrating the differences of opinion between the Intelligence Community and law enforcement agencies regarding this threat.
December 14, 2021

Drivers of Youth Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The findings suggest that a range of factors including demographic characteristics, location, employment status, income, practicing of religion, and civic and political activism are associated with a degree of sympathy for violent extremism among youth in B.i.H.
December 14, 2021

Insights from Neurobiology on Influence and Extremism

These reports will provide the operational and policy communities with a deeper understanding of the unique behavioral and neurobiological factors that underlie political extremism, specifically in the cyber realm.
December 13, 2021

Community Perspectives on Preventing Violent Extremism

This comparative synthesis report – building on four country case studies covering Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo and Macedonia – was produced in the framework of a participatory research project on “Opportunities for Preventing Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans”. Together with with four local research partners, we explore why some communities are particularly affected by individuals inspired by and/or joining the Islamic State (IS) or similar violent extremist groups, while other communities may show greater resilience to the same phenomenon. The project also includes policy outreach activities, both nationally and internationally, as well as local dialogue initiatives, in cooperation with local stakeholders and affected communities, in order to explore and develop strategies to prevent violent radicalisation in the Western Balkans in light of the research findings.
December 13, 2021

The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism

I attempt to identify the central conceptual and methodological challenges that must be overcome if the risk assessment of terrorism is to make the same progress that in recent years has distinguished the risk assessment of other forms of violence.
December 13, 2021

The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone -Actor Terrorist

In this article we have studied the behaviors and mindset of a loneactor terrorist, Malik Hasan (who happened to also be a mental health professional and a psychiatrist) through the lens of TRAP-18.
December 13, 2021

Toward a Profile of Lone Wolf Terrorists

In this article, we bring together suggestions about what a lone wolf profile might look like. We describe a two-pyramids model that distinguishes radicalization of opinion from radicalization of action, then use this model to review three case histories of lone wolf terrorists.
December 13, 2021

The Many Faces of Fanaticism

The article presents fanaticism as a universal phenomenon that can manifest itself in almost every sphere of human activity.
December 13, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation: A Systematic Review

The ICPC study involves three key components that assist in preventing radicalization: pluralist and harmonious social integration, greater emphasis on more refined, non-combative debate, and diversified discourse that is truly inclusive.
December 13, 2021

The Psychology of Extremism and Terrorism: A Middle-Eastern Perspective

The recent surge of terrorism and issues related to its causes are reviewed in this paper from a Middle-Eastern perspective. First, important related issues such as the definition, ideologies, environment, political, and social reasons that are linked to terrorism are briefly reviewed. Second, and the main focus in this paper, is a review of the psychological variables associated with terrorism. Finally suggestions for possible solutions and research projects are offered.
December 13, 2021

Religious Radicalism and Violent Extremism In Albania

This study has collected, generated, and analyzed data on the phenomenon of religious radicalization and violent extremism with the aim of informing policymaking and stakeholders involved in addressing this phenomenon and the challenges interrelated with it. The research methodology approaches the identification and comprehensive analysis of the context by employing a variety of sources to understand the extent and relevance of several factors that enable or fuel religious radicalization and forms of violent extremism.
December 13, 2021

The Islamic Narrative in Kosovo

Given the potency of the IS propaganda to catalyze the radicalization process and its role in inspiring individuals to commit themselves to violent extremism, KCSS compiled this report with the aim to identify, deconstruct, analyze, contextualize and interpret the IS propaganda targeting Kosovo Albanians as well as to reveal the tools employed to spread this narrative among different audiences in Kosovo. In Kosovo’s case, this report finds that the narrative, while laced with religious language and injected with Koranic verses, in essence speaks to local issues. It seeks to utilize local disgruntlement, past grievances as well as events pertaining to the 1998-1999 to mobilize its supporters in Kosovo.
December 13, 2021

Assessment of Violent Extremism in Serbia

This assessment dealt with the root causes and drivers of VE in Serbia. It identified four different types of extremism: a) religiously-motivated extremism, including foreign fighters in the Middle East; b) ideologically-motivated (right-wing) extremism, which included Serbian nationals traveling to fight for the pro-Russian side in Ukraine; c) ethnically-motivated extremism; and d) hooliganism. All four types recognized in this research are rooted, directly or indirectly, in the context cited above. We will here summarize all underlying factors and drivers shared by these seemingly distinct types of extremism.
December 10, 2021

Roots of Violent Radicalisation

Violent radicalisation is clearly a problem within the UK but it takes place within an international context and it is important for the UK authorities to be aware of developments elsewhere and to share information with partners abroad, both in respect of extremist Islamist organisations or movements, and in respect of extreme right-wing groups within Europe and America.
December 9, 2021

Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions

The purpose of this research is three-fold: to collect baseline information on non-traditional religions in United States correctional institutions; to identify the personal and social motivations for prisoners’ conversions to these faith groups; and to assess the prisoners’ potential for terrorist recruitment.
December 9, 2021

Radicalisation of Diaspora Communities

This report looks at factors that can help to explain why diasporas may become radicalised and explores briefly efforts at deradicalisation. Diaspora identities are inherently hybrid, reflecting continued attachment or connection to the country of origin alongside adoption of elements from the host country. There can be a high level of diversity within the diaspora and within specific diaspora communities.
December 9, 2021

The Relation Between Extremism and Hooliganism

Measures for the prevention of hooliganism can be of value for P/CVE, and vice versa. However, extremists within hooligan and ultra groups constitute a specific group, calling for a tailor-made approach. Such made-tomeasure approaches for dealing with extremism among hooligans and ultras are still novel in Europe, and should receive more attention from both policymakers and P/CVE practitioners.
December 9, 2021

Trends of Radicalisation: Hungary

Our findings show that the proliferation of right-wing radical movements, coupled with the wider socio-political context, has had a significant effect on perpetrators.
December 7, 2021

Understanding the radicalisation process from psychological perspectives

This literature review, prepared by Dr. Ayşenur Benevento, investigates the psychology’s foundational theories and overviews their contributions to the study of radicalisation from a psychological perspective.
December 7, 2021

Psychological process to radicalisation

this paper has explored the complex processes hypothesised to explain how a young law-abiding citizen is transformed into violent political activist, one so their own life at a time when they have abundant capacity for further growth and experience [ determined that he or she is willing to sacrifice).
December 7, 2021

Psychological Vulnerabilities to Violent Extremism

Rather than focusing a “psychology of terrorism” primarily on mental disorder, it might be more useful to explore vulnerabilities and propensities.
December 7, 2021

Understanding radicalisation in the Western Balkans

This research usefully informs policy development, providing practical recommendations, while also feeding into an overarching regional report, where broader linkages and key transnational issues that have been identified.
December 7, 2021

Right-wing Extremism in Serbia

There are strong movements at the far right of the political spectrum that strive to bring Serbs back to their alleged roots .
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

The report is a literature review of radicalisation and violent extremism in the Balkans, including terminology, drivers, narratives, the foreign fighter phenomenon and gender aspects.
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in Montenegro

The research explores a range of themes and topics with key stakeholders within communities, civil society and government, in order to build a coherent picture of the specific situation in Montenegro.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK