p/cve terminology

December 17, 2021

National CounterTerrorism Stratey of The Republic of Macedonia

With the present document the Republic of Macedonia seeks to coordinate the efforts of the ministries, governmental and nongovernmental institutions.
December 17, 2021

Albanian National Strategy Countering Violent Extremism

This Strategy will enable the Albanian government to devise guiding principles, policies, and actions to address radicalization and violent extremism. With the end goal of creating a prosperous and inclusive environment for citizens, this Strategy will also cultivate a culture of respect for fundamental freedoms throughout the country.
December 17, 2021

Online Extremism

The review concludes by considering the emergent literature on how violent extremism is being countered online, touching on both defensive and offensive measures.
December 17, 2021

Rehabilitation Manual

This manual offers guidance to first line practitioners regarding the rehabilitation of radicalised and terrorist offenders inside as well as outside of prison.
December 17, 2021

The Problems of Radicalisation and Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons

The article examines the problem of radicalization among the incarcerated in places of confinement.
December 17, 2021

Dealing with Non-Violent Right-Wing Extremist Actors

his overview paper focuses on right-wing extremism (RWE) and freedom of expression. It provides advices from first-line practitioners on how to deal with and respond to extremists publicly expressing their ideologies in a nonviolent, but still potentially harmful, way. It also delves into the matter of how practitioners can protect themselves against potential backlash and threats of violence from extremist organisations or movements.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Psychological Mechanisms Involved in Radicalisation and Extremism

A complete and clear conceptualization is crucial for developing prevention/intervention programs and good practices in dealing with this process which has been spreading in the past years. The final part deals with directions regarding prevention/intervention programs from a rational emotive and behavioral perspective, and also from the perspective of European policies.
December 16, 2021

Extremism Research Forum: Macedonia

The report thematically presents the levels, forms, and threats of extremism in Macedonia by outlining the definitional variances between violent and non-violent extremism, the waves of Islamist extremism, the phenomenon of foreign fighters, and burgeoning nationalist extremism and its political undertones.
December 16, 2021

Far-Rigth Extremism: A practical Introduction

This factbook gives an overview of fundamental elements; it does not provide an allincluding in-depth study of all the FRE movements across the EU.
December 16, 2021

The Concept of Radicalisation as a Source of Confusion

The proposed solution is to abandon the attempt to use ‘‘radicalization’’ as an absolute concept.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion

Based on an in-depth literature review, this paper seeks to explore key terms and the discourses surrounding them in greater detail.
December 16, 2021

Terrorism, Radicalisation, Extremism, Authoritarianism and Fundamentalism – A Systematic Review

The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism.
December 16, 2021

The Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Criminal Justice and Rehabilitation Process

This literature review begins by providing an overview of the history of risk assessment as a science and introduces key terms and theories.
December 16, 2021

Reporting about Violent Extremism and P/CVE Challenges for Journalists

This paper will address some of the most relevant challenges by introducing key insights and recommendations on how to follow a “do no harm” approach when informing the public, and particularly when reporting about violence. The role of civil society organisations working on P/CVE will also be highlighted.
December 16, 2021

From Terrorism to ‘Radicalisation’ to ‘Extremism

This article argues that the discourses of radicalization and, more lately, of extremism have served to confuse the remit of counterterrorism.
December 16, 2021

Islamist Extremism: A Practical Introduction

This factbook provides an overview of the fundamental elements of violent Islamist extremism to enable recognition of its symbols, vocabulary, recruitment tactics and narratives used in various settings, including online, in our schools, local communities, or prisons. There are multiple manifestations of violent Islamist extremism across the EU. Because of the national and local variations, it is impossible to provide an all-including in-depth study of the phenomenon. This factbook focuses specifically on Salafi-jihadism.
December 15, 2021

Incels: A First Scan of the Phenomenon (in the EU) and its Relevance and Challenges for P/CVE

This paper intends to demystify key tenets of the incel ideology and its relationship to violence, outline key challenges for practitioners in prevention and countering of violent extremism (P/CVE) in reaching this community, and offer recommendations for intervention providers and practitioners to increase and improve work related to this phenomenon.
December 15, 2021

Minimum methodological requirements for exit interventions

This paper is not intended to be a comprehensive blueprint on how to shape a deradicalisation programme. This would be impossible given the different legislation and infrastructures within the EU Member States. Even within Member States there is huge variety between different fields in which deradicalisation work is done (for example in a prison or youth centre setting). Participants also differ when it comes to ideology, gender and degree of radicalisation, which makes one-size-fits-all solutions impossible. Finally, the acceptance level for radical thoughts is fluent and varied within the general public, media and political debate.
December 15, 2021

R2PRIS: Methodological Framework

This report was developed by the partnership of R2PRIS Radicalisation Prevention in Prisons (2015-1-PT01-KA204-013062) project with the aim of presenting its first deliverable: the R2PRIS Methodological Framework.
December 14, 2021

Islamophobia and Xenophobia in Slovenia

Our research, therefore, attempts to first identify Islamophobia and xenophobia through theoretical discourse as the fear of the "other" − that is, the fear towards Muslims (Islamophobia) or towards the foreigners (xenophobia)
December 14, 2021

Risk Assessment Decisions for Violent Political Extremism

The major goals of the project were to identify and compare the specific characteristics and factors of those who perpetrate “general” criminal violence and those who perpetrate ideologically motivated violence.
December 14, 2021

National Hubs Supporting Local Actors in P/CVE

Setting the course from a local perspective this paper will aim at identifying different models of how nationallevel actors can support local actors in their P/CVE efforts. Based on an exploration of practical work and existing cases, this paper will provide an overview of different good practices, models and/or approaches of national hubs supporting local P/CVE actors in Europe. In doing so, the paper will give a structured compilation of the different needs, lessons learned and experiences from existing models of national support hubs.
December 14, 2021

Violent Extremism: Definition and Terminology

This guide is an effort by the Kosovo Center for Security Studies (KCSS) to address, in cooperation with Kosovo media, the absence of a compendium of the terminology and practices, in order to properly respond to the need for more accurate and substantive surveys and reporting on the phenomenon of violent extremism in Kosovo. This guide is a product of KCCS’s research and of the longstanding experience of its researchers on recognizing and studying violent extremism and its origin in Kosovo, compiled with the support of the US Department of State and the US Embassy in Kosovo and through broad consultations with Kosovo media news desks, editors, journalists and local reporters from municipalities and the capital.
December 14, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation in Prisons

The following is a summary of proceedings setting out some of the key issues that emerged during the wide-ranging discussion, looking at some of the international practice that was shared during the meeting and concluding with some practical recommendations for future action.
December 14, 2021

National Approches to Extremism: KOSOVO

First signs of radical and extremist views in Kosovo were identified shortly after the war in 1999. Security agencies that were monitoring such individuals saw their numbers rising in the following years. Through a slow and long-term process, inflammatory imams exploited the existing grievances of Kosovo citizens to proselytise Salafi/Wahhabi forms of radical Islam.
December 14, 2021

Non-custodial Rehabilitation and Reintegration in P/CVE: A Guidebook

While recognizing the need to develop tailored, context- and conflict-sensitive approaches to the challenge, the guide identifies a series of principles that should underpin all non-custodial R&R efforts
December 14, 2021

A Whole-of-Society Approach to Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization

This guidebook is one in a series of guidebooks produced by the ATU on the challenges in developing and implementing effective programmes to prevent and counter VERLT. We anticipate that this guidebook, and our forthcoming publications, will prove to be valuable resources for policymakers and practitioners across the OSCE area who are working to foster inclusive approaches to peace and security. It provides practical guidelines and helpful background for both policymakers and practitioners who are working to advance P/CVERLT initiatives.
December 13, 2021

The Moral Questions on the Religious Basis for Terrorism

Having gone this far, we can conclude by saying that every claim for a religious sanctioned terrorism is a faulty one. This is as a result of our understanding of what many mainstream religions preach. Many Islamic, Christian, Hindus etc scholars have so far presented us with the image of religion that preaches peace, justice, etc.
December 13, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism: Literature Review

This report consists of a literature review and analysis of the existing research concerning ‘countering violent extremism’. This multifaceted report demonstrates the complexity of understanding Violent Extremism and best strategies to Countering Violent Extremism. This has been undertaken with the broader analysis of radicalisation and social cohesion theories, models and government policies and how they may impact on or contribute to best practice and policy in countering violent extremism.
December 13, 2021

The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism

In this paper we review and extend measures of political mobilization: the increasing extremity of beliefs, feelings, and behaviors in support of inter-group conflict. Building on previous research, we introduce the Activism and Radicalism Intention Scales (ARIS).
December 13, 2021

The Many Faces of Fanaticism

The article presents fanaticism as a universal phenomenon that can manifest itself in almost every sphere of human activity.
December 13, 2021

The Psychology of Extremism and Terrorism: A Middle-Eastern Perspective

The recent surge of terrorism and issues related to its causes are reviewed in this paper from a Middle-Eastern perspective. First, important related issues such as the definition, ideologies, environment, political, and social reasons that are linked to terrorism are briefly reviewed. Second, and the main focus in this paper, is a review of the psychological variables associated with terrorism. Finally suggestions for possible solutions and research projects are offered.
December 13, 2021

The Development of Structured Guidelines for Assessing Risk in Extremist Offenders

This paper describes how the methodology was developed to be clinically sensitive, empirically grounded and ethically defensible.
December 13, 2021

Structural Quality Standards for Work to Intervene and Counter Violent Extremism

With this handbook the Counter Extremism Network Coordination Unit (KPEBW) in the Ministry for Interior Affairs, Digitalisation and Integration of the state of Baden-Württemberg in cooperation with the German Institute on Radicalization and De-Radicalization Studies (GIRDS) would like to present a recommendation for 5 minimum structural standards both to an audience of counter-extremism actors and to other state coordination units or policymaker.
December 13, 2021

Overview of research on far right extremism in the Western Balkans

Far-right extremism is widespread in the Western Balkans and exists in both mainstream political parties and extremist groups and individuals. Most of the literature focuses on Serbian nationalist groups, but far-right groups are also present in Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania and North Macedonia.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a multi-ethnic country with a population of 3.5 million split along religious lines. The main Abrahamic religions are present in BiH and are the foundation for ethnic divisions in the country: Bosniak Muslims, Catholic Croats, Orthodox Christian Serbs, and a minority presence of Jews. It became independent from Yugoslavia.
December 13, 2021

National Approaches to Extremism : NORTH MACEDONIA

The Republic of North Macedonia has at least two characteristics that its citizens share: a complex ethnic structure and a strategically important geopolitical location in the Balkans. Most recently, as of 2017 and the formation of the new political government, the country reached two significant bilateral benchmarks: the Greco-Macedonian Prespa Agreement (17 June 2018) and the 2017 Treaty on Friendship, Good Neighbourliness and Cooperation with Bulgaria. This turn of events marks an important milestone in the Macedonian EU integration process.
December 10, 2021

Violent Radicalisation & Far-Right Extremism In Europe

While this report does not comprehensively cover all the potential topics related to the radicalisation of far-right violent extremism in Europe, it provides a beginning step to enhance the available research on the subject and generate some specific examples and recommendations for policy and programme responses
December 10, 2021

Empirical Assessment of Domestic Radicalization

The results of the EADR project lend good support to radicalization mechanisms that are based on personal and collective psychology. That said, our analysis failed to account for the radicalization pathways of 15 of 35 cases of violent extremism that were analyzed, which indicates that extant radicalization research does not account for all of the causal conditions that can contribute to radicalization processes. Future research efforts should focus on interviews with extremists and panel surveys of at-risk populations in order to identify these missing conditions
December 10, 2021

Evaluation of the Netherlands Comprehensive Action Programme to Combat jihadism

The Inspectorate of Security and Justice concludes that the Netherlands comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism has provided positive momentum to the integral approach. The points for improvement proposed in this report can serve to further improve the approach and to put the measures in the Action Programme on a more permanent and regular footing. This reflects the great importance of these measures in the fight against radicalisation, extremism and terrorism in the Netherlands.
December 10, 2021

Roots of Violent Radicalisation

Violent radicalisation is clearly a problem within the UK but it takes place within an international context and it is important for the UK authorities to be aware of developments elsewhere and to share information with partners abroad, both in respect of extremist Islamist organisations or movements, and in respect of extreme right-wing groups within Europe and America.
December 9, 2021

The Terroristic Nature of Eco-Extremism

This Comment analyzes these extremist activities through the lens of federal terrorism laws and argues that, while these activists' goals are laudable,their methods are often terroristic. Consequently, those activities that go too far are-and should be-classified as terrorism.
December 9, 2021

Defining terrorism : one size fits all?

In this article I outline the wide-ranging difficulties with both the current definition as it stands and the notion of a single definition for terrorism that can be applied across multiple, highly varied, legal contexts.
December 7, 2021

Is Migration a Risk Factor for Radicalisation?

This paper aims to analyze the correlation between migration and the phenomenon of radicalization, presenting them theoretically and examining the main models of intervention used to combat radicalization and extremism.
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation into Violent Extremism

The review examined the basic concepts of RVE, including the terms "radicalization" and "radicalism," the framing of RVE as a pathway rather than as an event, and explored the possible utility of social science theories for understanding the RVE process and the embedded socialcognitive mechanisms that might facilitate violent action.
December 7, 2021

Towards Academic Consensus Definitions of Radicalism and Extremism

Attempting to re-define essentially contested and frequently (ab-)used and fuzzy concepts like radicalism and extremism from an academic perspective - that is without any political definition– may look like an exercise in futility.
December 7, 2021

Hate Speech and Radicalisation Online

The report examines the tactics of Islamist and right-wing extremist groups online, the effects of disinformation, social media search algorithims on political polarisation and radicalisation.
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

The report is a literature review of radicalisation and violent extremism in the Balkans, including terminology, drivers, narratives, the foreign fighter phenomenon and gender aspects.
December 7, 2021

Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in Montenegro

The research explores a range of themes and topics with key stakeholders within communities, civil society and government, in order to build a coherent picture of the specific situation in Montenegro.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK