Global Security and Politics

December 17, 2021

Strategy on Prevention of Violent Extremism and Radicalisation Leading to Terrorism

Strategic objectives determined under this strategic document aims to address the push and pull factors that influence the radicalization of the population, with special emphasis on the youth.
December 17, 2021

Joint Action Plan on Counter-Terrorism for the Western Balkans

To this effect, this Joint Action Plan outlines a concrete level of ambition and focus common to all Western Balkans partners, as well as related EU support in the area of Counter-Terrorism, including Preventing and Countering of Violent Extremism.
December 17, 2021

Integrated Country Strategy: Macedonia

We intend to build on these strengths and invest resources and political capital in the relationship
December 17, 2021

Prevention of Radicalisation on Social Media and the Internet

This chapter focuses on the prevention of radicalization on social media and the internet in this digital age.
December 17, 2021

Country Profile: Albania

This Country Profile provides a brief overview of religious diversity and its governance in the above-named state.
December 17, 2021

Counter-Speech Practices in Europe

We conclude with a brief summary, suggestions as to how this comparative framework could be expanded for future use, and a set of five recommendations for counter-speech activists and practitioners.
December 17, 2021

A Genealogy of Radical Islam

A genealogy of the radical ideas that underline al-Qaeda’s justification for violence shows that the development of jihadi thought over the past several decades is characterized by the erosion of critical constraints used to limit warfare and violence in classical Islam.
December 17, 2021

Belgian and Dutch Converts Joining the Islamic State

This Research Note sketched a more complex picture of converts joining IS than the one presented by the media.
December 16, 2021

Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

The following rules are not intended to describe in detail a model system of penal institutions. They seek only, on the basis of the general consensus of contemporary thought and the essential elements of the most adequate systems of today, to set out what is generally accepted as being good principles and practice in the treatment of prisoners and prison management.
December 16, 2021

Religious Tolerance in Albania

The present study finds that the foundations of religious tolerance in Albania are deeply rooted in the societal traditions and culture rather than from religious awareness, knowledge or practice.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance and Respect for Diversity

This paper does not focus solely on religiously-inspired violent extremism. Many drivers apply to other forms of extreme behavior. Radical behavior in itself is not necessarily a problem. Non-violent radical behavior, especially if undertaken purposely in the political, economic or cultural sphere, can help to promote positive change. Violent extremism kicks in when radical behavior starts making use of indiscriminate violence as the means of expression.
December 16, 2021

Country Report: Bosnia and Herzegovina

This Country Report offers a detailed assessment of religious diversity and violent religious radicalisation in the above-named state. It is part of a series covering 23 countries (listed below) on four continents. More basic information about religious affiliation and state-religion relations in these states is available in our Country Profiles series. This report was produced by GREASE, an EU-funded research project investigating religious diversity, secularism and religiously inspired radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Making Sense of Extremism in the Bosnian Football Terraces

This paper presents an initial assessment of the results of a four month research project studying the Ultras1 groups in BiH
December 16, 2021

Far-Rigth Extremism: A practical Introduction

This factbook gives an overview of fundamental elements; it does not provide an allincluding in-depth study of all the FRE movements across the EU.
December 16, 2021

Stakeholders of (De)- Radicalisation in Serbia

This report aims to depict and analyze the context of radicalisation in Republic of Serbia in the period from 2000 to 2021 as a part of the Work Package “Mapping Stakeholders and Situations of Radicalisation” of the D.Rad project. It puts emphasis on the most important acts of violence that indicate current and future trends of radicalisation and de-radicalisation; provides insight into how the political elite and general public perceive extremism, radicalisation and violent threats; and maps out the agents and channels of radicalisation and de-radicalisation
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation in the West: The Homegrown Threat

The aim of this report is to assist policymakers and law enforcement officials, both in Washington and throughout the country, by providing a thorough understanding of the kind of threat we face domestically. It also seeks to contribute to the debate among intelligence and law enforcement agencies on how best to counter this emerging threat by better understanding what constitutes the radicalization process.
December 16, 2021

Western Balkans Foreign Fighters and Homegrown Jihadis: Trends and Implications

Over 1,000 adult male foreign fighters, women, and minors from the Western Balkans spent time in Syria and Iraq and around 500 from the region are still there, including children born in theater. After seven years of fighting and at least 260 combat deaths, the last active jihadi unit from the Western Balkans in Syria and Iraq is a modest ethnic Albanian combat unit fighting with Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham in Idlib.
December 16, 2021

The Concept of Radicalisation as a Source of Confusion

The proposed solution is to abandon the attempt to use ‘‘radicalization’’ as an absolute concept.
December 16, 2021

Islamist Extremism: A Practical Introduction

This factbook provides an overview of the fundamental elements of violent Islamist extremism to enable recognition of its symbols, vocabulary, recruitment tactics and narratives used in various settings, including online, in our schools, local communities, or prisons. There are multiple manifestations of violent Islamist extremism across the EU. Because of the national and local variations, it is impossible to provide an all-including in-depth study of the phenomenon. This factbook focuses specifically on Salafi-jihadism.
December 16, 2021

The Impact of Conspiracy Narratives on Violent RWE and LWE Narratives

The aim of the RAN Communication and Narratives Working Group (C&N) meeting held on 24 and 25 November 2020 was to explore this topic with practitioners, industry representatives and experts. During the first day of the meeting, practitioners and experts discussed emerging conspiracy narrative trends, and how these intersect with extremism. Participants offered practical insights on how to engage with individuals who either believe in conspiracy narratives or are prone to them. On the second day, participants analysed the Great Replacement and QAnon through the lens of the GAMMMA+ model and provided pragmatic recommendations to practitioners on how to counter conspiracy narratives. This paper summarises the discussions, highlights key points and recommends practical next steps
December 15, 2021

Incels: A First Scan of the Phenomenon (in the EU) and its Relevance and Challenges for P/CVE

This paper intends to demystify key tenets of the incel ideology and its relationship to violence, outline key challenges for practitioners in prevention and countering of violent extremism (P/CVE) in reaching this community, and offer recommendations for intervention providers and practitioners to increase and improve work related to this phenomenon.
December 15, 2021

Video Gaming: Threats and Opportunities

This paper first discusses the threats regarding grooming tactics on video gaming and video gaming adjacent platforms by providing background information on different models of grooming that were shared during the meeting. The similarities and differences found between grooming for radicalisation purposes and other purposes (in particular, child sexual abuse and cults) are discussed. T
December 15, 2021

Violent Right Extremism in Focus

In order to tackle violent right-wing extremism, it is key to get a better understanding of the phenomenon. It encompasses a diverse range of different ideologies and narratives that coexist with more traditional right-wing extremist ideologies like national socialism and fascism
December 15, 2021

The role of sports and leisure activities in preventing and countering violent extremism

. Cooperating with youth professionals and applying pedagogical methods can create opportunities for youngsters to work on the attitudes and life skills that make them resilient to ideological exploitation and the lure of extremist violence.
December 15, 2021

Prison and Probation Interventions

This complex situation is reflected in prison and probation environments: practitioners have a responsibility to keep prisons – and the public domain – safe from terrorist activity, and must also deal with individuals at risk of radicalisation. Based on practitioners’ experiences collated in the P&P Practitioners' Working Paper ( 2 ), RAN P&P has developed an approach to prison and probation interventions.
December 15, 2021

Social Identity Theory for Investigating Islamic Extremism in the Diaspora

This paper attempts to contribute to the discussion on the role of identity in radicalization by using social identity theory. In doing so, the article explores the formation and transformation process of social identities, and argues that the nature of communitylevel groups and networks may contribute to identity ‘readiness’ for radicalization
December 15, 2021

Issues of Radicalisation and Violent Extremism in Macedonia

The primary objective of this report is to examine the extent to which radicalisation and violent extremism is related to the practice of Islam. That said, the report does not qualify this type of extremism as the main security challenge in Macedonia due to the presence of other forms of extremism, such as nationalism. As the findings of the report will explain, religious extremism is often juxtaposed with nationalism.
December 14, 2021

Islamophobia and Xenophobia in Slovenia

Our research, therefore, attempts to first identify Islamophobia and xenophobia through theoretical discourse as the fear of the "other" − that is, the fear towards Muslims (Islamophobia) or towards the foreigners (xenophobia)
December 14, 2021

Signs of Islamist Radicalisation and Extremism in a Country without a Single Terrorist Attack: The Case of Slovenia

The article identifies and studies instances of the transit of foreign Islamists, their finances and arms, provides examples of local foreign fighters and their return, identifies NGOs with radical agendas and attempts at recruitment, as well as threats made to local authorities, training under the cover of a social event, the deportation of extremists, and a foiled terrorist attack. Most of these indicators are linked to Jihadi and Islamist sources of power based in Bosnia.
December 14, 2021

New Threats of Violent Extremism in Kosovo

Yet, despite Government’s willingness to take ownership of the issue, with no reintegration program in place and a public largely unwilling to welcome the foreign fighters back, their return and the continued radicalization on the ground are poised to become Kosovo’s greatest national security threat to date.
December 14, 2021

Countering the Cultivation of Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This policy note explores a number of reasons why the BiH educational system is failing to proactively and preventively respond, and why this is a matter for concern.
December 14, 2021

Rethinking Radicalisation

This report explores how the unsubstantiated “religious conveyor belt” theory has influenced our response to radicalization among American Muslims and the consequences that have ensued. Since much of the government’s response to radicalization is driven by perceptions of the risk of homegrown terrorist attacks, the report begins by demonstrating the differences of opinion between the Intelligence Community and law enforcement agencies regarding this threat.
December 14, 2021

A Whole-of-Society Approach to Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization

This guidebook is one in a series of guidebooks produced by the ATU on the challenges in developing and implementing effective programmes to prevent and counter VERLT. We anticipate that this guidebook, and our forthcoming publications, will prove to be valuable resources for policymakers and practitioners across the OSCE area who are working to foster inclusive approaches to peace and security. It provides practical guidelines and helpful background for both policymakers and practitioners who are working to advance P/CVERLT initiatives.
December 14, 2021

Drivers of Youth Radicalisation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The findings suggest that a range of factors including demographic characteristics, location, employment status, income, practicing of religion, and civic and political activism are associated with a degree of sympathy for violent extremism among youth in B.i.H.
December 13, 2021

Far-right Extremism in Europe, 2021

It is important to state from the outset that any overview of the European far right will necessarily talk in broad terms. This is especially important to understand when talking about the contemporary online far right. While it remains important to explore trends in traditional far right organisations such as political parties, the modern far-right is currently undergoing a broader and more fundamental shift; namely the emergence of a transnational and post-organisational threat.
December 13, 2021

Community Perspectives on Preventing Violent Extremism

This comparative synthesis report – building on four country case studies covering Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo and Macedonia – was produced in the framework of a participatory research project on “Opportunities for Preventing Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans”. Together with with four local research partners, we explore why some communities are particularly affected by individuals inspired by and/or joining the Islamic State (IS) or similar violent extremist groups, while other communities may show greater resilience to the same phenomenon. The project also includes policy outreach activities, both nationally and internationally, as well as local dialogue initiatives, in cooperation with local stakeholders and affected communities, in order to explore and develop strategies to prevent violent radicalisation in the Western Balkans in light of the research findings.
December 13, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation: A Systematic Review

The ICPC study involves three key components that assist in preventing radicalization: pluralist and harmonious social integration, greater emphasis on more refined, non-combative debate, and diversified discourse that is truly inclusive.
December 13, 2021

The Earth Liberation Front and Environmental Terrorism

Based on the analysis and data presented, it is clear that ELF poses a threat to research facilities involved in, or perceived to be involved in, virtually any form of biotech research. Given ELF’s preference for attacking facilities with little or no security, university labs are most clearly at risk.
December 13, 2021

Structural Quality Standards for Work to Intervene and Counter Violent Extremism

With this handbook the Counter Extremism Network Coordination Unit (KPEBW) in the Ministry for Interior Affairs, Digitalisation and Integration of the state of Baden-Württemberg in cooperation with the German Institute on Radicalization and De-Radicalization Studies (GIRDS) would like to present a recommendation for 5 minimum structural standards both to an audience of counter-extremism actors and to other state coordination units or policymaker.
December 13, 2021

Citizens Perceptions on the New Threats of Violent Extremism In Kosovo

This report consists of data analysis on perceptions regarding threat of violent extremism and trust towards stakeholders involved in prevention of this phenomena. It is divided in three main sessions: the first focuses on general perceptions about violent extremism and other forms of extremism such as: ethnically motivated violence, political violence and religiously motivated violence; the second outlines the perceptions towards risks and threats of returned fighters, and community willingness to accept former fighters and women/minors; the last session focuses on the perceptions towards stakeholders involved in implementation of the CVE strategy.
December 13, 2021

Overview of research on far right extremism in the Western Balkans

Far-right extremism is widespread in the Western Balkans and exists in both mainstream political parties and extremist groups and individuals. Most of the literature focuses on Serbian nationalist groups, but far-right groups are also present in Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania and North Macedonia.
December 10, 2021

Violent Radicalisation & Far-Right Extremism In Europe

While this report does not comprehensively cover all the potential topics related to the radicalisation of far-right violent extremism in Europe, it provides a beginning step to enhance the available research on the subject and generate some specific examples and recommendations for policy and programme responses
December 10, 2021

Foreign Terrorist Figthers in the Republic of North Macedonia

The issue that is a point of interest of this paper is the current situation of returning the foreign terrorist fighters to their home country or third countries and the security consequences that may arise if they are not treated properly.
December 10, 2021

Roots of Violent Radicalisation

Violent radicalisation is clearly a problem within the UK but it takes place within an international context and it is important for the UK authorities to be aware of developments elsewhere and to share information with partners abroad, both in respect of extremist Islamist organisations or movements, and in respect of extreme right-wing groups within Europe and America.
December 10, 2021

Political radicalisation on the Internet

Then we focused on radicalization to action by examining two cases where we know in some detail how Internet content contributed to moving individuals to active jihad.
December 9, 2021

Animal Rights Extremism and the Terrorism Question

Animal rights extremism is a complex phenomenon. Extremists have varying intentions and the range of violence they employ also varies considerably. A thorough grasp of extremists’ intentions and targets is required for informed analysis of the ethics of the phenomenon and to answer the terrorism question.
December 9, 2021

The Relation Between Extremism and Hooliganism

Measures for the prevention of hooliganism can be of value for P/CVE, and vice versa. However, extremists within hooligan and ultra groups constitute a specific group, calling for a tailor-made approach. Such made-tomeasure approaches for dealing with extremism among hooligans and ultras are still novel in Europe, and should receive more attention from both policymakers and P/CVE practitioners.
December 9, 2021

Terrorist Use of the Internet by the Numbers Quantifying Behaviors, Patterns, and Processes

By using a unique data set of 223 convicted United Kingdom–based terrorists, this article focuses on how they used the Internet in the commission of their crimes.
December 9, 2021

Trends of Radicalisation: Hungary

Our findings show that the proliferation of right-wing radical movements, coupled with the wider socio-political context, has had a significant effect on perpetrators.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK