December 17, 2021

Online Extremism

The review concludes by considering the emergent literature on how violent extremism is being countered online, touching on both defensive and offensive measures.
December 17, 2021

Online Interventions for Reducing Hate Speech and Cyberhate

The goal of this systematic review is to use an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to examine the effectiveness of online campaigns and strategies for reducing hate speech and cyberhate.
December 17, 2021

Approaches to Violent Extremist Offenders and Countering Radicalisation

The paper is structured around these two contexts. While in practice this distinction may not exist in some EU Member States, it serves to identify key issues: prison conditions and reintegration strategies, risk assessment, prison regime choices, rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives, and staff training.
December 17, 2021

A Genealogy of Radical Islam

A genealogy of the radical ideas that underline al-Qaeda’s justification for violence shows that the development of jihadi thought over the past several decades is characterized by the erosion of critical constraints used to limit warfare and violence in classical Islam.
December 17, 2021

Rehabilitation Manual

This manual offers guidance to first line practitioners regarding the rehabilitation of radicalised and terrorist offenders inside as well as outside of prison.
December 17, 2021

Designing Rehabilitation and Reintegration Programmes for Violent Extremist Offenders

Specifically, the policy brief makes an argument for a Realist approach as developed by Pawson and Tilley , which is concerned with the identification of policies’ underlying causal mechanisms and the way in which they function across contexts. In other words, a Realist approach aims to move beyond assessing ´whether the programme works´ to ´why the programme (sometimes) works’ and ‘why it works differently in different environments’, in order to identify what can be done to maximise the chances of success. 
December 17, 2021

The Problems of Radicalisation and Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons

The article examines the problem of radicalization among the incarcerated in places of confinement.
December 17, 2021

Dealing with Non-Violent Right-Wing Extremist Actors

his overview paper focuses on right-wing extremism (RWE) and freedom of expression. It provides advices from first-line practitioners on how to deal with and respond to extremists publicly expressing their ideologies in a nonviolent, but still potentially harmful, way. It also delves into the matter of how practitioners can protect themselves against potential backlash and threats of violence from extremist organisations or movements.
December 17, 2021

Communicating with Radicalised Individuals in an Exit Setting

This manual aims to help and inspire exit work practitioners in their communication with (former) extremists, based on the expertise of experienced professionals. Not all suggestions provided will apply to every single exit process or facility.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalisation to Violence in Prisons

The focus of this Handbook is on adult male and female violent extremist prisoners. The specific issue of children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having committed violent extremist offences will be dealt with in a separate UNODC publication, recognizing the different legal regime applicable to children deprived of their liberty. Collective disengagement from violent extremism is also not covered in this Handbook, as its focus is on the individual prisoner and interventions aimed at individual disengagement from violence.
December 16, 2021

Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

The following rules are not intended to describe in detail a model system of penal institutions. They seek only, on the basis of the general consensus of contemporary thought and the essential elements of the most adequate systems of today, to set out what is generally accepted as being good principles and practice in the treatment of prisoners and prison management.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on Dynamic Security and Prison Intelligence

This Handbook is one of a series of tools developed by UNODC to support countries in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform. It is designed to be used by all actors involved in the prison system, including policymakers, legislators, prison managers, prison intelligence officers and prison staff. Members of other law enforcement bodies, non-governmental organizations and other individuals interested or active in the field of criminal justice and prison reform may find it of interest.
December 16, 2021

Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance and Respect for Diversity

This paper does not focus solely on religiously-inspired violent extremism. Many drivers apply to other forms of extreme behavior. Radical behavior in itself is not necessarily a problem. Non-violent radical behavior, especially if undertaken purposely in the political, economic or cultural sphere, can help to promote positive change. Violent extremism kicks in when radical behavior starts making use of indiscriminate violence as the means of expression.
December 16, 2021

Lone Actors in Digital Environments

his paper aims to provide an overview of digital environments and draw insights from qualitative research and monitoring of RWE online subcultures that reveals a shift towards a post-organisational reality, whereby online structures and subcultural milieus could be equally important for inspiring violence as connections to groups in the physical world.
December 16, 2021

Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism

Here, I scrutinize such charges by examining 18 years of radical environmentalism for evidence of violence and for indications of violent tendencies.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mind-Set

In the present article, the authors report on the development of a scale for the measurement of the militant extremist mind-set.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mindset and the Assessment of Radicalization in the General Population

This paper presents new data and reviews the available evidence pointing to the existence of three main ingredients of militant extremist mindset.
December 16, 2021

“Electronic Jihad”: The Internet as al-Qaeda’s Catalyst for Global Terror

This study will examine the evolving doctrine of ‘Electronic Jihad and its impact on the radicalization of Muslims in Western diaspora communities
December 16, 2021

Protective and Promotive Factors Building Resilience Against Violent Radicalisation

To this end, the paper: (1) specifies which risk factors can be mitigated by which protective factors; (2) explains the importance of promotive factors in mitigating risk; (3) explains the importance of promotive factors in enhancing well-being and strengthening individual and societal resilience; (4) presents a kaleidoscopic overview, including implications for policies and practices
December 16, 2021

The Concept of Radicalisation as a Source of Confusion

The proposed solution is to abandon the attempt to use ‘‘radicalization’’ as an absolute concept.
December 16, 2021

Terrorism, Radicalisation, Extremism, Authoritarianism and Fundamentalism – A Systematic Review

The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism.
December 16, 2021

Risk Assessment and the Prevention of Radicalization from Nonviolence Into Terrorism

This article considers the challenges associated with completing risk assessments in countering violent extremism.
December 15, 2021

R2PRIS: Methodological Framework

This report was developed by the partnership of R2PRIS Radicalisation Prevention in Prisons (2015-1-PT01-KA204-013062) project with the aim of presenting its first deliverable: the R2PRIS Methodological Framework.
December 14, 2021

Risk Assessment Decisions for Violent Political Extremism

The major goals of the project were to identify and compare the specific characteristics and factors of those who perpetrate “general” criminal violence and those who perpetrate ideologically motivated violence.
December 14, 2021

Poverty, Minority Economic Discrimination, and Domestic terrorism

Central to this study is the argument that because terrorism is not a mass phenomenon but rather is undertaken by politically marginal actors with often narrow constituencies, the economic status of subnational groups is a crucial potential predictor of attacks
December 14, 2021

Insights from Neurobiology on Influence and Extremism

These reports will provide the operational and policy communities with a deeper understanding of the unique behavioral and neurobiological factors that underlie political extremism, specifically in the cyber realm.
December 13, 2021

The Moral Questions on the Religious Basis for Terrorism

Having gone this far, we can conclude by saying that every claim for a religious sanctioned terrorism is a faulty one. This is as a result of our understanding of what many mainstream religions preach. Many Islamic, Christian, Hindus etc scholars have so far presented us with the image of religion that preaches peace, justice, etc.
December 13, 2021

An Internet-Mediated Pathway for Online Radicalisation

This chapter proposes an Internet-mediated radicalisation model, RECRO.
December 13, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism: Literature Review

This report consists of a literature review and analysis of the existing research concerning ‘countering violent extremism’. This multifaceted report demonstrates the complexity of understanding Violent Extremism and best strategies to Countering Violent Extremism. This has been undertaken with the broader analysis of radicalisation and social cohesion theories, models and government policies and how they may impact on or contribute to best practice and policy in countering violent extremism.
December 13, 2021

Social Network Hate Speech

Author(s) Mossie, Z. & Wang, J.-2018 Abstract Social Network Hate Speech: Detection for Amharic Language  The anonymity of social networks makes it attractive for hate speech to mask their criminal activities online posing a challenge to the world and in particular Ethiopia. With this everincreasing volume of social media data, hate speech identification becomes a challenge in aggravating conflict between citizens of nations. The high rate of production, has become difficult to collect, store and […]
December 13, 2021

The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism

In this paper we review and extend measures of political mobilization: the increasing extremity of beliefs, feelings, and behaviors in support of inter-group conflict. Building on previous research, we introduce the Activism and Radicalism Intention Scales (ARIS).
December 13, 2021

The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism

I attempt to identify the central conceptual and methodological challenges that must be overcome if the risk assessment of terrorism is to make the same progress that in recent years has distinguished the risk assessment of other forms of violence.
December 13, 2021

The Operational Development and Empirical Testing of TRAP–18

The TRAP– 18 is further discussed as a threat assessment instrument for mental health clinicians. The limitations of the current research provide direction for further studies to assess its reliability and construct, discriminant, and predictive validity.
December 13, 2021

The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone -Actor Terrorist

In this article we have studied the behaviors and mindset of a loneactor terrorist, Malik Hasan (who happened to also be a mental health professional and a psychiatrist) through the lens of TRAP-18.
December 13, 2021

The ABC Model

In this commentary, I compare the ABC model of radicalization with the Two Pyramids model of radicalization.
December 13, 2021

Toward a Profile of Lone Wolf Terrorists

In this article, we bring together suggestions about what a lone wolf profile might look like. We describe a two-pyramids model that distinguishes radicalization of opinion from radicalization of action, then use this model to review three case histories of lone wolf terrorists.
December 13, 2021

Mechanisms of Political Radicalisation: Pathways Toward Terrorism

This article conceptualizes political radicalization as a dimension of increasing extremity of beliefs, feelings, and behaviors in support of intergroup conflict and violence.
December 13, 2021

Contribution Analysis: An Approach To Exploring Cause and Effect

Questions of cause and effect are critical to assessing the performance of programmes and projects. When it is not practical to design an experiment to assess performance, contribution analysis can provide credible assessments of cause and effect. Verifying the theory of change that the programme is based on, and paying attention to other factors that may influence the outcomes, provides reasonable evidence about the contribution being made by the programme.
December 13, 2021

The Many Faces of Fanaticism

The article presents fanaticism as a universal phenomenon that can manifest itself in almost every sphere of human activity.
December 13, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation: A Systematic Review

The ICPC study involves three key components that assist in preventing radicalization: pluralist and harmonious social integration, greater emphasis on more refined, non-combative debate, and diversified discourse that is truly inclusive.
December 13, 2021

Violent Extremism: A Comparasion of Approaches to Assessing and Managing Risk

The objective of the present paper is to identify good practice in the risk field in general and to apply that to the specific area of risk in relation to violent extremism – in order that developments here accord to highest standards of practice achieved so far elsewhere.
December 13, 2021

Strategy and Tactics in Countering the Storyline of Global Jihad

Here we argue that counter-narratives must be tailored to different audiences and must be designed to attack particular mechanisms of radicalisation
December 13, 2021

Linking Theory-Based Evaluation and Contribution Analysis

Contribution analysis and theory-based evaluation are linked. This article discusses the contributions of several (recent) developments to further deepen the links between theorybased evaluation and contribution analysis. This will be done by describing how three wellknown (and almost classical) problematic situations for impact evaluations can be addressed through the application of insights and tools from theory-based evaluation
December 13, 2021

Use of Structured Professional Judgment by Probation Officers to Assess Risk for Recidivism in Adolescent Offenders

The current study tested a method of risk assessment for adolescent offenders that relies on structured professional judgment: the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006).
December 13, 2021

An Integrated Approach To The Assessment And Management Of Aggression/Violence in Mental Health

he aim of this paper is to critically discuss risk assessment practices in order to propose a systematic approach to the effective assessment and management of aggression and violence in mental health settings.
December 13, 2021

The ABC Model: Clarifications and Elaborations

In responding to McCauley’s comments, through this article we have distinguished between the “core” and “optional extra” elements of our ABC model, elaborated on how our interpretation deals with individuals who seemingly become involved in this violence in the interests of the group, “unpacked” the concept of ideology through our ABC lens, and provided recommendations on how to measure attitudes and behaviors.
December 13, 2021

ABC Model of Violent Extremism

As its name suggests, the Attitudes-Behaviors Corrective (ABC) model seeks to overcome this issue by placing this key disconnect between attitudes and behaviors at its core. In this paper, we first present the key elements of our model, which include a graphic representation of this disconnect and a classification system of the drivers of violent extremism.
December 10, 2021

Development of the RADAR-iTE instruction card for operational and educational purposes

The objective of the thesis was to develop an instruction card for operational and educational purposes. The instruction card is meant for people who are using the risk assessment tool for the first time or are having their first case and need reminding and concentration of using RADAR-iTE assessment tool. As the instruction card was prepared, practice research was conducted to collect information of the RADAR-iTE before prototyping of the instruction card.
December 10, 2021

Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders: Core Principles & Good Practices

By better understanding the radicalisation process and why people become terrorists it is possible to formulate the steps to take to counter dangerous violent extremist ideologies.
December 10, 2021

Perspectives from Psychology on Radicalisation into terrorism

In considering the nature of involvement in terrorism, we might begin to develop phase-specific counterterrorism initiatives, depending on what we can ascertain is the most effective intervention point: whether it be initial prevention of involvement, subsequent disruption of engagement, or eventual promotion of disengagement
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