December 17, 2021

Joint Action Plan on Counter-Terrorism for the Western Balkans

To this effect, this Joint Action Plan outlines a concrete level of ambition and focus common to all Western Balkans partners, as well as related EU support in the area of Counter-Terrorism, including Preventing and Countering of Violent Extremism.
December 17, 2021

Enhancing Penintentiary Capacities in Adressing Radicalisation in Prison in the Western Balkans

The project's overall aim is to contribute to regional security by addressing radicalisation in prisons and disengaging violent extremist prisoners from violence.
December 17, 2021

Prevention of Radicalisation on Social Media and the Internet

This chapter focuses on the prevention of radicalization on social media and the internet in this digital age.
December 17, 2021

Online Extremism

The review concludes by considering the emergent literature on how violent extremism is being countered online, touching on both defensive and offensive measures.
December 17, 2021

Online Interventions for Reducing Hate Speech and Cyberhate

The goal of this systematic review is to use an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to examine the effectiveness of online campaigns and strategies for reducing hate speech and cyberhate.
December 17, 2021

Approaches to Violent Extremist Offenders and Countering Radicalisation

The paper is structured around these two contexts. While in practice this distinction may not exist in some EU Member States, it serves to identify key issues: prison conditions and reintegration strategies, risk assessment, prison regime choices, rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives, and staff training.
December 17, 2021

A Genealogy of Radical Islam

A genealogy of the radical ideas that underline al-Qaeda’s justification for violence shows that the development of jihadi thought over the past several decades is characterized by the erosion of critical constraints used to limit warfare and violence in classical Islam.
December 17, 2021

Rehabilitation Manual

This manual offers guidance to first line practitioners regarding the rehabilitation of radicalised and terrorist offenders inside as well as outside of prison.
December 17, 2021

Designing Rehabilitation and Reintegration Programmes for Violent Extremist Offenders

Specifically, the policy brief makes an argument for a Realist approach as developed by Pawson and Tilley , which is concerned with the identification of policies’ underlying causal mechanisms and the way in which they function across contexts. In other words, a Realist approach aims to move beyond assessing ´whether the programme works´ to ´why the programme (sometimes) works’ and ‘why it works differently in different environments’, in order to identify what can be done to maximise the chances of success. 
December 17, 2021

The Problems of Radicalisation and Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons

The article examines the problem of radicalization among the incarcerated in places of confinement.
December 17, 2021

Dealing with Non-Violent Right-Wing Extremist Actors

his overview paper focuses on right-wing extremism (RWE) and freedom of expression. It provides advices from first-line practitioners on how to deal with and respond to extremists publicly expressing their ideologies in a nonviolent, but still potentially harmful, way. It also delves into the matter of how practitioners can protect themselves against potential backlash and threats of violence from extremist organisations or movements.
December 17, 2021

Communicating with Radicalised Individuals in an Exit Setting

This manual aims to help and inspire exit work practitioners in their communication with (former) extremists, based on the expertise of experienced professionals. Not all suggestions provided will apply to every single exit process or facility.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalisation to Violence in Prisons

The focus of this Handbook is on adult male and female violent extremist prisoners. The specific issue of children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having committed violent extremist offences will be dealt with in a separate UNODC publication, recognizing the different legal regime applicable to children deprived of their liberty. Collective disengagement from violent extremism is also not covered in this Handbook, as its focus is on the individual prisoner and interventions aimed at individual disengagement from violence.
December 16, 2021

Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

The following rules are not intended to describe in detail a model system of penal institutions. They seek only, on the basis of the general consensus of contemporary thought and the essential elements of the most adequate systems of today, to set out what is generally accepted as being good principles and practice in the treatment of prisoners and prison management.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on Dynamic Security and Prison Intelligence

This Handbook is one of a series of tools developed by UNODC to support countries in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform. It is designed to be used by all actors involved in the prison system, including policymakers, legislators, prison managers, prison intelligence officers and prison staff. Members of other law enforcement bodies, non-governmental organizations and other individuals interested or active in the field of criminal justice and prison reform may find it of interest.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance and Respect for Diversity

This paper does not focus solely on religiously-inspired violent extremism. Many drivers apply to other forms of extreme behavior. Radical behavior in itself is not necessarily a problem. Non-violent radical behavior, especially if undertaken purposely in the political, economic or cultural sphere, can help to promote positive change. Violent extremism kicks in when radical behavior starts making use of indiscriminate violence as the means of expression.
December 16, 2021

Psychological Mechanisms Involved in Radicalisation and Extremism

A complete and clear conceptualization is crucial for developing prevention/intervention programs and good practices in dealing with this process which has been spreading in the past years. The final part deals with directions regarding prevention/intervention programs from a rational emotive and behavioral perspective, and also from the perspective of European policies.
December 16, 2021

Lone Actors in Digital Environments

his paper aims to provide an overview of digital environments and draw insights from qualitative research and monitoring of RWE online subcultures that reveals a shift towards a post-organisational reality, whereby online structures and subcultural milieus could be equally important for inspiring violence as connections to groups in the physical world.
December 16, 2021

Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism

Here, I scrutinize such charges by examining 18 years of radical environmentalism for evidence of violence and for indications of violent tendencies.
December 16, 2021

Far-Rigth Extremism: A practical Introduction

This factbook gives an overview of fundamental elements; it does not provide an allincluding in-depth study of all the FRE movements across the EU.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mind-Set

In the present article, the authors report on the development of a scale for the measurement of the militant extremist mind-set.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mindset and the Assessment of Radicalization in the General Population

This paper presents new data and reviews the available evidence pointing to the existence of three main ingredients of militant extremist mindset.
December 16, 2021

“Electronic Jihad”: The Internet as al-Qaeda’s Catalyst for Global Terror

This study will examine the evolving doctrine of ‘Electronic Jihad and its impact on the radicalization of Muslims in Western diaspora communities
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation in the West: The Homegrown Threat

The aim of this report is to assist policymakers and law enforcement officials, both in Washington and throughout the country, by providing a thorough understanding of the kind of threat we face domestically. It also seeks to contribute to the debate among intelligence and law enforcement agencies on how best to counter this emerging threat by better understanding what constitutes the radicalization process.
December 16, 2021

Protective and Promotive Factors Building Resilience Against Violent Radicalisation

To this end, the paper: (1) specifies which risk factors can be mitigated by which protective factors; (2) explains the importance of promotive factors in mitigating risk; (3) explains the importance of promotive factors in enhancing well-being and strengthening individual and societal resilience; (4) presents a kaleidoscopic overview, including implications for policies and practices
December 16, 2021

Western Balkans Foreign Fighters and Homegrown Jihadis: Trends and Implications

Over 1,000 adult male foreign fighters, women, and minors from the Western Balkans spent time in Syria and Iraq and around 500 from the region are still there, including children born in theater. After seven years of fighting and at least 260 combat deaths, the last active jihadi unit from the Western Balkans in Syria and Iraq is a modest ethnic Albanian combat unit fighting with Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham in Idlib.
December 16, 2021

The Concept of Radicalisation as a Source of Confusion

The proposed solution is to abandon the attempt to use ‘‘radicalization’’ as an absolute concept.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion

Based on an in-depth literature review, this paper seeks to explore key terms and the discourses surrounding them in greater detail.
December 16, 2021

The Gamification of Violent Extremism & Lessons for P/CVE

After providing a brief introduction to gamification as such, this paper provides an overview of the use of gamification within extremist communities and the mechanisms by which it makes propaganda more attractive. Then, the potential for gamification in the P/CVE context is considered.
December 16, 2021

Extremists’ Use of Gaming platforms

The first part of the paper discusses how traditional gaming (adjacent) platforms have contributed to extremist activities.
December 16, 2021

Terrorism, Radicalisation, Extremism, Authoritarianism and Fundamentalism – A Systematic Review

The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism.
December 16, 2021

Risk Assessment and the Prevention of Radicalization from Nonviolence Into Terrorism

This article considers the challenges associated with completing risk assessments in countering violent extremism.
December 16, 2021

The Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Criminal Justice and Rehabilitation Process

This literature review begins by providing an overview of the history of risk assessment as a science and introduces key terms and theories.
December 16, 2021

Civil Society Organisations in Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism in the Western Balkans

This regional mapping has been produced for the project: “Communities First: Creation of a civil society hub to prevent and counter violent extremism” (the Hub).
December 16, 2021

Reporting about Violent Extremism and P/CVE Challenges for Journalists

This paper will address some of the most relevant challenges by introducing key insights and recommendations on how to follow a “do no harm” approach when informing the public, and particularly when reporting about violence. The role of civil society organisations working on P/CVE will also be highlighted.
December 16, 2021

Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States:

The findings of this review suggest that approaches to deradicalisation should consider the importance of building communities through improved links between state-security, health, education and social care.
December 16, 2021

Rehabilitation Work with Convicted Offenders Outside of Prison

This paper builds on lessons learned in the EU context, and it is useful for first-line practitioners providing probation and community sanctions and measures (CSMs) services, as well as exit workers and community.
December 16, 2021

Islamist Extremism: A Practical Introduction

This factbook provides an overview of the fundamental elements of violent Islamist extremism to enable recognition of its symbols, vocabulary, recruitment tactics and narratives used in various settings, including online, in our schools, local communities, or prisons. There are multiple manifestations of violent Islamist extremism across the EU. Because of the national and local variations, it is impossible to provide an all-including in-depth study of the phenomenon. This factbook focuses specifically on Salafi-jihadism.
December 16, 2021

The Root Causes of Violent Extremism

This brief issue paper provides a summary of ‘root causes’ leading to violent extremism.
December 16, 2021

The Impact of Conspiracy Narratives on Violent RWE and LWE Narratives

The aim of the RAN Communication and Narratives Working Group (C&N) meeting held on 24 and 25 November 2020 was to explore this topic with practitioners, industry representatives and experts. During the first day of the meeting, practitioners and experts discussed emerging conspiracy narrative trends, and how these intersect with extremism. Participants offered practical insights on how to engage with individuals who either believe in conspiracy narratives or are prone to them. On the second day, participants analysed the Great Replacement and QAnon through the lens of the GAMMMA+ model and provided pragmatic recommendations to practitioners on how to counter conspiracy narratives. This paper summarises the discussions, highlights key points and recommends practical next steps
December 15, 2021

Incels: A First Scan of the Phenomenon (in the EU) and its Relevance and Challenges for P/CVE

This paper intends to demystify key tenets of the incel ideology and its relationship to violence, outline key challenges for practitioners in prevention and countering of violent extremism (P/CVE) in reaching this community, and offer recommendations for intervention providers and practitioners to increase and improve work related to this phenomenon.
December 15, 2021

Video Gaming: Threats and Opportunities

This paper first discusses the threats regarding grooming tactics on video gaming and video gaming adjacent platforms by providing background information on different models of grooming that were shared during the meeting. The similarities and differences found between grooming for radicalisation purposes and other purposes (in particular, child sexual abuse and cults) are discussed. T
December 15, 2021

Violent Right Extremism in Focus

In order to tackle violent right-wing extremism, it is key to get a better understanding of the phenomenon. It encompasses a diverse range of different ideologies and narratives that coexist with more traditional right-wing extremist ideologies like national socialism and fascism
December 15, 2021

The role of sports and leisure activities in preventing and countering violent extremism

. Cooperating with youth professionals and applying pedagogical methods can create opportunities for youngsters to work on the attitudes and life skills that make them resilient to ideological exploitation and the lure of extremist violence.
December 15, 2021

Preventing Radicalisation to Terrorism and Violent Extremism: Approaches and Practices

In recent years, the processes of radicalisation leading to violent extremism have greatly evolved. The variety of ideologies that provide inspiration for extremist groups is growing and include religious inspired extremism, left wing, anarchist and right wing ideologies as well as nationalist and separatist ideologies. Extremists are also no longer acting only as part of organised, hierarchical organisations but also within smaller cells and sometimes as lone wolves.
December 15, 2021

Local Communications for Returning FTFs

The paper is written for local (preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE)) coordinators and communications experts who are or will be dealing with returning FTFs and who wish to improve their communication strategy in this context.
December 15, 2021

Galvanising Youth in Combatting Online Disinformation

he following conclusion paper presents the outcomes of this meeting. The challenges and experiences of young people, as well as the young people’s perspectives on opportunities and strategies to counter disinformation, can be found under ‘Highlights of the discussion’. The second part of this paper offers actionable recommendations for practitioners who want to engage young people in strategies for combatting disinformation online
December 15, 2021

Understanding The Mental Health Disorders Pathway Leading to Violent Extremism

This paper identifies risk factors that make these people vulnerable to violent extremism, as well as ways that professionals can assess protective factors which may contribute to safeguarding them.
December 15, 2021

Prison and Probation Interventions

This complex situation is reflected in prison and probation environments: practitioners have a responsibility to keep prisons – and the public domain – safe from terrorist activity, and must also deal with individuals at risk of radicalisation. Based on practitioners’ experiences collated in the P&P Practitioners' Working Paper ( 2 ), RAN P&P has developed an approach to prison and probation interventions.
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