Resource documents

May 10, 2022

Travelers to Syria: Returnees from Syrian battlefronts

We present the study of the project activities in which we have tried to express our enthusiasm with the research process in a simple, objective, meaningful way, presenting the findings of the research project.
May 10, 2022

Strengthening civil society from Bosnia and Herzegovina to recognise and monitor online threats on the social media

The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge on VE among the (younger) population in the target areas in BiH (Sarajevo, Zenica, Bihac and Tuzla), as well as their Internet and media literacy.
December 20, 2021

National Strategy for the Prevention and Countering of Terrorism: Serbia

The Strategy is based on principles and values enshrined in the Constitution, and is harmonized with valid legislation of the Republic of Serbia. The purpose and objectives of the Strategy are harmonized with the basic strategic documents in the Republic of Serbia in the field of security and countering of terrorism, in particular with the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Serbia.
December 20, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism Strategy: Montenegro

The Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Strategy has been developed as part of the Government of Montenegro’s effort to effectively address the problems of radicalization and violent extremism. It represents an integral part of the Government of Montenegro’s multifaceted contribution to the global fight against terrorism in all forms and manifestations. It builds on and complements the national Strategy for the Prevention and Supression of Terrorism, Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing. It represents a response to the threat of radicalization to violence, violent extremism and in particular the problem of foreign terrorist fighters.
December 17, 2021

Strategy on Prevention of Violent Extremism and Radicalisation Leading to Terrorism

Strategic objectives determined under this strategic document aims to address the push and pull factors that influence the radicalization of the population, with special emphasis on the youth.
December 17, 2021

Integrated Country Strategy: Macedonia

We intend to build on these strengths and invest resources and political capital in the relationship
December 17, 2021

Enhancing Penitentiary Capacities in Adressing Radicalisation in Prison in the Western Balkans

The project's overall aim is to contribute to regional security by addressing radicalisation in prisons and disengaging violent extremist prisoners from violence.
December 17, 2021

National Counter-Terrorism Strategy of The Republic of Macedonia

With the present document the Republic of Macedonia seeks to coordinate the efforts of the ministries, governmental and nongovernmental institutions.
December 17, 2021

Strategy of Bosnia and Herzegozina for Preventing and Combating Terrorism

is important to emphasise that the Strategy is adopted at the time of intensifying security challenges on a global scale, including, among other, foreign terrorist fighters, violent extremism and crime and hate speech, abuse of the Internet for terrorist purpose.
December 17, 2021

Albanian National Strategy Countering Violent Extremism

This Strategy will enable the Albanian government to devise guiding principles, policies, and actions to address radicalization and violent extremism. With the end goal of creating a prosperous and inclusive environment for citizens, this Strategy will also cultivate a culture of respect for fundamental freedoms throughout the country.
December 17, 2021

Albania 2017- Decision on the Creation of the Center of Coordination in Countering Violent Extremism

Albania 2017 Council of Ministers Decision on the Creation of the Center of Coordination in Countering Violent Extremism (CVE Center)
December 17, 2021

Prevention of Radicalisation on Social Media and the Internet

This chapter focuses on the prevention of radicalization on social media and the internet in this digital age.
December 17, 2021

Religious Radicalisation and Violent Islamist Extremism in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo

This article aims to present an analysis of internal and external factors that have contributed to the development of the phenomenon: the economic, social and ideological aspects, and the areas most affected by this issue.
December 17, 2021

Country Profile: Albania

This Country Profile provides a brief overview of religious diversity and its governance in the above-named state.
December 17, 2021

Online Extremism

The review concludes by considering the emergent literature on how violent extremism is being countered online, touching on both defensive and offensive measures.
December 17, 2021

Counter-Speech Practices in Europe

We conclude with a brief summary, suggestions as to how this comparative framework could be expanded for future use, and a set of five recommendations for counter-speech activists and practitioners.
December 17, 2021

Online Interventions for Reducing Hate Speech and Cyberhate

The goal of this systematic review is to use an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to examine the effectiveness of online campaigns and strategies for reducing hate speech and cyberhate.
December 17, 2021

Approaches to Violent Extremist Offenders and Countering Radicalisation

The paper is structured around these two contexts. While in practice this distinction may not exist in some EU Member States, it serves to identify key issues: prison conditions and reintegration strategies, risk assessment, prison regime choices, rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives, and staff training.
December 17, 2021

A Genealogy of Radical Islam

A genealogy of the radical ideas that underline al-Qaeda’s justification for violence shows that the development of jihadi thought over the past several decades is characterized by the erosion of critical constraints used to limit warfare and violence in classical Islam.
December 17, 2021

Rehabilitation Manual

This manual offers guidance to first line practitioners regarding the rehabilitation of radicalised and terrorist offenders inside as well as outside of prison.
December 17, 2021

The EU and other Stakeholders’ Prevention Strategies Towards VE in Albania

This policy paper focuses on the aptness of the EU and other stakeholders’ prevention strategies towards violent extremism in Albania.
December 17, 2021

The Status of Violent Extremism in Albania

This study is prepared in the framework of the project “Countering violent extremism in Albania – Persisting violent extremist forms and threats and the way forward to reinforced PVE”, supported financially by the Public Affairs Office of the US Embassy in Tirana.
December 17, 2021

Radicalisation in The Digital Era

This paper presents the results from exploratory primary research into the role of the internet in the radicalisation of 15 terrorists and extremists in the UK.
December 17, 2021

Countering Radicalisation in America

The challenges European authorities have had to face are similar to those their U.S. counterparts are expected to confront, and several lessons are at hand from the European experience.
December 17, 2021

Countering Radicalisation in Europe

The report seeks to highlight challenges common to the four countries examined. From the onset, European authorities have struggled to identify the target of their actions. Most recently, authorities throughout the continent seem to have shifted their focus from the broader phenomenon of extremism to the narrower subcategory of violent radicalization.
December 17, 2021

Designing Rehabilitation and Reintegration Programmes for Violent Extremist Offenders

Specifically, the policy brief makes an argument for a Realist approach as developed by Pawson and Tilley , which is concerned with the identification of policies’ underlying causal mechanisms and the way in which they function across contexts. In other words, a Realist approach aims to move beyond assessing ´whether the programme works´ to ´why the programme (sometimes) works’ and ‘why it works differently in different environments’, in order to identify what can be done to maximise the chances of success. 
December 17, 2021

The Problems of Radicalisation and Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons

The article examines the problem of radicalization among the incarcerated in places of confinement.
December 17, 2021

Belgian and Dutch Converts Joining the Islamic State

This Research Note sketched a more complex picture of converts joining IS than the one presented by the media.
December 17, 2021

Reintegrating Terrorists in the Netherlands

This article presents an in-depth evaluation of a specialized reintegration initiative within the Dutch Probation Service focused on individuals convicted or suspected of involvement in terrorism.
December 17, 2021

Dealing with Non-Violent Right-Wing Extremist Actors

his overview paper focuses on right-wing extremism (RWE) and freedom of expression. It provides advices from first-line practitioners on how to deal with and respond to extremists publicly expressing their ideologies in a nonviolent, but still potentially harmful, way. It also delves into the matter of how practitioners can protect themselves against potential backlash and threats of violence from extremist organisations or movements.
December 17, 2021

Communicating with Radicalised Individuals in an Exit Setting

This manual aims to help and inspire exit work practitioners in their communication with (former) extremists, based on the expertise of experienced professionals. Not all suggestions provided will apply to every single exit process or facility.
December 17, 2021

A Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers

This report describes the Office of the Inspector General’s (OIG) review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ (BOP) policies and procedures for the selection of individuals who provide Islamic religious services to federal inmates.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalisation to Violence in Prisons

The focus of this Handbook is on adult male and female violent extremist prisoners. The specific issue of children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having committed violent extremist offences will be dealt with in a separate UNODC publication, recognizing the different legal regime applicable to children deprived of their liberty. Collective disengagement from violent extremism is also not covered in this Handbook, as its focus is on the individual prisoner and interventions aimed at individual disengagement from violence.
December 16, 2021

Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

The following rules are not intended to describe in detail a model system of penal institutions. They seek only, on the basis of the general consensus of contemporary thought and the essential elements of the most adequate systems of today, to set out what is generally accepted as being good principles and practice in the treatment of prisoners and prison management.
December 16, 2021

Handbook on Dynamic Security and Prison Intelligence

This Handbook is one of a series of tools developed by UNODC to support countries in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform. It is designed to be used by all actors involved in the prison system, including policymakers, legislators, prison managers, prison intelligence officers and prison staff. Members of other law enforcement bodies, non-governmental organizations and other individuals interested or active in the field of criminal justice and prison reform may find it of interest.
December 16, 2021

Religious Tolerance in Albania

The present study finds that the foundations of religious tolerance in Albania are deeply rooted in the societal traditions and culture rather than from religious awareness, knowledge or practice.
December 16, 2021

Journey to Extremism in Africa

The Journey to Extremism in Africa report represents a major output of UNDP Africa’s Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa programme, which has set out since 2015 to provide leadership and support to national and regional partners in delivering development-focused and effective responses to the expanding crises associated with violent extremism across the continent.
December 16, 2021

Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance and Respect for Diversity

This paper does not focus solely on religiously-inspired violent extremism. Many drivers apply to other forms of extreme behavior. Radical behavior in itself is not necessarily a problem. Non-violent radical behavior, especially if undertaken purposely in the political, economic or cultural sphere, can help to promote positive change. Violent extremism kicks in when radical behavior starts making use of indiscriminate violence as the means of expression.
December 16, 2021

Country Report: Bosnia and Herzegovina

This Country Report offers a detailed assessment of religious diversity and violent religious radicalisation in the above-named state. It is part of a series covering 23 countries (listed below) on four continents. More basic information about religious affiliation and state-religion relations in these states is available in our Country Profiles series. This report was produced by GREASE, an EU-funded research project investigating religious diversity, secularism and religiously inspired radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The purpose of this research was to identify common and distinct factors of resilience or vulnerability to violent extremism in Bosnian communities as well as the influence of key actors on those factors.
December 16, 2021

Radicalization in Prisons? Field Research in 25 Spanish Prisons

This article has two principal objectives: (1) to study the behavioral dimensions of Muslim prisoners which predict their Islamist radicalism and (2) to study whether the behavior manifested by them is higher in prisons with a greater concentration of Muslims and a higher presence of prisoners convicted for Islamist terrorism than in prisons with fewer Muslims and no convicted Islamist terrorists.
December 16, 2021

Psychological Mechanisms Involved in Radicalisation and Extremism

A complete and clear conceptualization is crucial for developing prevention/intervention programs and good practices in dealing with this process which has been spreading in the past years. The final part deals with directions regarding prevention/intervention programs from a rational emotive and behavioral perspective, and also from the perspective of European policies.
December 16, 2021

Lone Actors in Digital Environments

his paper aims to provide an overview of digital environments and draw insights from qualitative research and monitoring of RWE online subcultures that reveals a shift towards a post-organisational reality, whereby online structures and subcultural milieus could be equally important for inspiring violence as connections to groups in the physical world.
December 16, 2021

Making Sense of Extremism in the Bosnian Football Terraces

This paper presents an initial assessment of the results of a four month research project studying the Ultras1 groups in BiH
December 16, 2021

Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism

Here, I scrutinize such charges by examining 18 years of radical environmentalism for evidence of violence and for indications of violent tendencies.
December 16, 2021

Extremism Research Forum: Macedonia

The report thematically presents the levels, forms, and threats of extremism in Macedonia by outlining the definitional variances between violent and non-violent extremism, the waves of Islamist extremism, the phenomenon of foreign fighters, and burgeoning nationalist extremism and its political undertones.
December 16, 2021

Countering Violent Extremism in Macedonia

In view of these realities, this policy brief proposes four recommendations, based on a broader, more holistic grassroots approach, which would assist the Republic of Macedonia in moving away from a “whole-of-government” strategy to a “whole-of-society” strategy which includes all stakeholders in the CVE.
December 16, 2021

Community Perspectives on the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Macedonia

Using the data collected during the fieldwork exercise, the report aims to determine what makes each aforementioned municipality more or less affected by violent radicalisation.
December 16, 2021

Far-Rigth Extremism: A Practical Introduction

This factbook gives an overview of fundamental elements; it does not provide an allincluding in-depth study of all the FRE movements across the EU.
December 16, 2021

Militant Extremist Mind-Set

In the present article, the authors report on the development of a scale for the measurement of the militant extremist mind-set.
HOPE RADICALISATION NETWORK