OVER the past 15 years, frontline practitioners have played a pivotal role when it comes to preventing radicalisation and combating violent extremism. However, while some Member States have already been focusing on RWE for many years, some of the efforts, strategies and policies have been historically aimed at countering Islamist-inspired extremism. Foiled plots in the aftermath of Christchurch, a surge in hate speech and racially motivated violence in EU Member States, including recent attacks such as in Halle (2019) and Hanau (2020), have demonstrated to the whole of Europe that rightwing extremist violence should not be overlooked. The current right-wing phenomenon is also fostering a growing repudiation of political and democratic solutions for grievances at a national level, fuelling societal hostility and polarisation that could lead to the escalation of highly polarised conflicts and attacks on minorities and refugees. But the potential threat from violent right-wing extremism comprises more than solely a security threat. Just a few individuals propagating hate speech and polarising messages can create a climate of tension in communities, sports teams or schools. In order to tackle violent right-wing extremism, it is key to get a better understanding of the phenomenon. It encompasses a diverse range of different ideologies and narratives that coexist with more traditional right-wing extremist ideologies like national socialism and fascism. With a strong and sophisticated online presence, it is nowadays much more likely to come across explicit or implicit violent right-wing extremist messages, often in the form of memes or hidden symbols. The RAN has produced a factbook to raise awareness and to provide practical and factual knowledge on representations, ideologies, narratives, symbols and vocabulary of violent right-wing extremism. It gives a good overview of the fundamental elements of the challenge, which could be beneficial when developing a tailored approach for a phenomenon that should not be ignored.