The loss of IS-held territory and the changing tactics of the terrorist organization as it seeks to adjust to the post-intervention environment created new threats and challenges for the security in Europe, and in particular in the Western Balkans and Kosovo. The once externally driven threat of the recruitment of foreign fighters in Kosovo is now gradually morphing into homegrown terrorism and violent extremism. As the flow of the foreign fighters recruited in Kosovo and departing to fight in Syria and Iraq mostly ebbed since 2015, the threat of violent extremism has shifted to instances of domestic terrorism in Kosovo. In the last two years alone, the Kosovo Police and Kosovo Intelligence Agency have prevented around four terrorists’ plots in Kosovo — an unprecedented number of extremist ideological attacks ever planned in the country. The threat of homegrown terrorism and continuous radicalization comes from several directions. Violent extremist ideologies are still very much prevalent in the families of foreign fighters from Kosovo, in particular in those that follow conservative teachings. These families hesitate to receive any kind of support from the state authorities and reject cooperation. Instead, they seek assistance from the non-formal religious radical groups that continue to operate in Kosovo. Another layer of the challenge is found in the Kosovo diaspora. About 20 per cent of the 403 foreign fighters from Kosovo are born or grew up as second or third-generation immigrants in the western European countries. During the establishment of the “Islamic State”, these individuals were among the most extreme foreign fighters, with several engaged in international terrorist acts in Europe and Turkey and suicide attacks in Syria and Iraq. The majority of these foreign fighters of Kosovo origin had little or nothing to do with Kosovo until now. However, there is an indication that some of them are stepping up their presence in Kosovo and may further their familial ties in the region to grow their network of influence for ideological purposes. In addition, some 190 Kosovo citizens remain in Syria and Iraq as part of terrorist organizations or are under arrest there. The Kosovo Government has undertaken efforts to return them to Kosovo, including a high number of children born to at least one Kosovo parent during the conflict. Yet, despite Government’s willingness to take ownership of the issue, with no reintegration program in place and a public largely unwilling to welcome the foreign fighters back, their return and the continued radicalization on the ground are poised to become Kosovo’s greatest national security threat to date.