The project intends to give an assessment of the factors influencing home grown terrorism and violent Islamist extremism in Europe. The purpose is to specify the specific phases, major characteristics and catalysts of the radicalisation process as well as suggesting relevant counter radicalisation measures. The threat of Islamist radicalisation and home grown terrorism in Europe has been growing over the last 4-5 years. Terrorist targets have been trains, airplanes, buses and airports. Planned terrorist plots have also been directed at the nightlife scene, parliaments and national symbols. Those involved are born or bred in Europe and the majority of these individuals appeared to be integrated in their Western societies. No single factor can be considered “causal” in the radicalisation process. A combination of factors is necessary to explain why there is an emergence of primarily young Muslim men, but also converts and women, willing to plan and carry out terrorist attacks killing others and even themselves. Radicalisation often starts with individuals who are frustrated with their lives, society or the foreign policy of their governments. A typical pattern is that these individuals meet other like-minded people, and together they go through a series of events and phases that ultimately can result in terrorism. However, only a few end up becoming terrorists. The rest stop or drop out of the radicalisation process at different phases. What is worrying, from a counter terrorism perspective, is that the process of radicalisation is occurring quickly, widely and more anonymously in the Internet age than only a few years ago. In particular, it raises the possibility of attacks from unknown self-starter groups. The major problem is that those involved appear to be normal and unremarkable.